When did modern humans get to Australia?
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Expedition to the Munga-Thirri National Park in South Western Queensland, including the great dune field of the eastern Simpson Desert, the world’s largest parallel sand ridge desert. AM scientists Sandy Ingleby and Anja Divljan (Mammal Collections) and Janet Waterhouse (Entomology) surveyed the area for mammal and insect species. Image: Jo Stewart
© Australian Museum
Origins of the First Australians
The viewpoints about the origins of these peoples was once entangled with the wider debate regarding the origins of all modern humans. During the 1980s and 1990s, the two main viewpoints were the ‘Out of Africa’ and ‘Multiregional’ models. However, new fossils and improved DNA research have resulted in these models becoming obsolete. The broad consensus now is that all modern humans are descended from an African population of Homo sapiens that migrated around the world but bred with local archaic populations as they did so.
There is some debate about the role that this interbreeding had in modern human origins. The ‘Recent African Origin’ model states that modern human traits merged in Africa and while interbreeding occurred during migrations around the world, these had only minimal impacts on genetic traits of modern humans. The ‘Assimilation’ model places greater emphasis on inter breeding, claiming that some Homo sapiens traits evolved in Africa, but many new traits evolved through interbreeding with other archaic populations outside of Africa.
‘Out of Africa’ stated that the first humans to colonise Australia came from a recent migration of Homo sapiens through South-east Asia. These people belonged to a single genetic lineage and were the descendants of a population that originated in Africa. The fossil evidence for the earliest Indigenous Australians does show a range of physical variation that would be expected in a single, geographically widespread population.
‘Multiregional’ proponents interpreted the variation found in the fossil record of early Indigenous Australians as evidence that Australia was colonised by two separate genetic lineages of modern humans. One lineage was believed to have been the evolutionary descendants of Indonesian Homo erectus while the other lineage had evolved from Chinese Homo erectus. Modern Aboriginal people are the result of the assimilation of these two genetic lineages.
The Asian Connection
Modern humans had reached Asia by 70,000 years ago before moving down through South-east Asia and into Australia. However, Homo sapiens were not the first people to inhabit this region. Homo erectus had already been in Asia for at least 1.5 million years. It is possible that these two species may have coexisted, as some dates for Indonesian Homo erectus suggest they may have survived there until as recently as 50,000 years ago. Homo erectus remains have never been found in Australia.
A second species, the Denisovans, was also know to inhabit this region and evidence shows they interbred with modern humans. Melanesians and Aboriginal Australians carry about 3-5 % of Denisovan DNA. This is explained by interbreeding of eastern Eurasian Denisovans with the modern human ancestors of these populations as they migrated towards Australia and Papua New Guinea.
Key fossil finds from Asia include
- ‘Solo Man’ – Homo erectus discovered in Ngangdong, Indonesia. ‘Solo Man’ shares similarities with earlier Homo erectus specimens from Sangiran and is considered to be a late Homo erectus. Its age is uncertain and, because its exact original location is unknown, published dates have ranged from 50,000 to 500,000 years old. If the younger age is correct, then it is possible that Homo erectus may have shared this region with Homo sapiens.
- ‘Wadjak’ – Homo sapiens discovered in 1889, Java, Indonesia. The age is between 8000 – 20,000 years old.
Originally, this skull was thought to be about 50,000 years old and attempts were made to link this skull with the arrival of the first Australians. However, dating methods have been unable to determine exactly how old it is. It is now thought to be probably less than 20,000 years old.
- Zhoukoudian Upper Cave 101 – Homo sapiens discovered in 1933 in Zhoukoudian, China. Age is 10,000 – 25,000 years old.
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Gateways into a new continent
There has always been an ocean separating Asia and Australia. At times this distance was reduced but the earliest travellers still had to navigate across large stretches of water.
For much of its history Australia was joined to New Guinea, forming a landmass called Sahul. These countries were finally separated by rising sea levels about 8,000 years ago. Genetic evidence supports the close ties between these two countries – the Indigenous peoples from these regions are more closely related to each other than to anyone else in the world, suggesting a recent common ancestry.
There are a number of likely paths of migration across Asia and into Sahul. These are based on the shortest possible route and take into consideration the land bridges that would appear during times of low sea levels. However, travel may have also occurred when sea levels were high. High sea levels would have reduced the amount of usable land and increased the population pressure. During these times it may have been necessary to expand into new areas.
Changing sea levels
Changing sea levels have significantly affected the geography of South-east Asia and Australia and the migration patterns of prehistoric peoples. During times of low sea levels the travelling distance between Timor and Sahul would have been reduced to about 90 kilometres.
Present sea levels are higher than they have been for most of the last million years. When water is locked up in the polar ice caps (known as an Ice Age) the sea level drops. When the climate becomes warmer, the ice melts and the sea level rises again.
The original seafarers
The settlement of Australia is the first unequivocal evidence of a major sea crossing and rates as one of the greatest achievements of early humans. However the motive and circumstances regarding the arrival of the first Australians is a matter for conjecture. It may have been a deliberate attempt to colonise new territory or an accident after being caught in monsoon winds.
The lack of preservation of any ancient boat means archaeologists will probably never know what kind of craft was used for the journey. None of the boats used by Aboriginal people in ancient times are suitable for major voyages. The most likely suggestion has been rafts made of bamboo, a material common in Asia.
The early occupation of Australia
The earliest dates for human occupation of Australia come from sites in the Northern Territory. The Madjedbebe (previously called Malakunanja II) rock shelter in Arnhem Land has a widely accepted date of about 50,000 years old. Reports of a date close to around 65,000 years old (Nature, 2017), which was contentious at the time, have been rebutted by Allen & O’Connell in 2020. Molecular clock estimates, genetic studies and archaeological data all suggest the initial colonisation of Sahul and Australia by modern humans occurred around 48,000–50,000 years ago.
Over the last few decades, a significant number of archaeological sites dated at more than 30,000 years old have been discovered. By this time all of Australia, including the arid centre and Tasmania, was occupied. The drowning of many coastal sites by rising sea levels has destroyed what would have been the earliest occupation sites.
Recently published dates of 120,000 years ago for the site of Moyjil in Warrnambool, Victoria, offer intriguing, but unlikely, possibilities of much earlier occupation (Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, 2018). The site contains remains of shellfish, crabs and fish in what may be a ‘midden’, but definitive proof of human occupation is lacking and investigations are ongoing.
The First Australians
Much of our knowledge about the earliest people in Australia comes from archaeology. The physical remains of human activity that have survived in the archaeological record are largely stone tools, rock art and ochre, shell middens and charcoal deposits and human skeletal remains. These all provide information on the tremendous length and complexity of Australian Aboriginal culture.
The oldest human fossil remains found in Australia date to around 40,000 years ago – 20,000 years after the earliest archaeological evidence of human occupation. Nothing is known about the physical appearance of the first humans that entered the continent about 50,000 years ago. What is clear is that Aboriginal people living in Australia between 40,000 and 10,000 years ago had much larger bodies and more robust skeletons than they do today and showed a wide range of physical variation.
Stone tools in Australia, as in other parts of the world, changed and developed through time. Some early types, such as wasted blades, core tools, large flake scrapers and split pebble choppers continue to be made and used right up to today.
About 6000 years ago, new and specialised tools such as points, backed blades and thumbnail scrapers became common. Significant variation between the tool kits of different regions also appeared. Prototypes for this technology appeared earlier in Asia, suggesting this innovation was introduced into Australia.
The ground stone technique produces tools with a more durable and even edge, although not as sharp as a chipped tool. The oldest ground stone tools appear in Australia about 10,000 years before they appear in Europe, suggesting that early Australians were more technologically advanced in some of their tool manufacturing techniques than was traditionally thought.
Rock art, including painted and carved forms, plays a significant role in Aboriginal culture and has survived in the archaeological record for over 30,000 years. In age and abundance Australian Aboriginal rock art is comparable to world-renowned European cave sites such as those at Lascaux in France and Altamira in Spain.
It is probable that rock art was part of the culture of the first Australians. Its exact purpose is unknown but it is likely that from the earliest times rock art would have formed part of religious ritual activity, as is common in modern hunter-gatherer societies.
Ochre and mineral pigments
Mineral pigments, such as ochre, provide the oldest evidence for human arrival in Australia. Used pigments have been found in the earliest occupation levels of many sites, with some pieces dated at about 50,000 years old. This suggests that art was practised from the beginning of colonisation. Natural pigments were probably used for a range of purposes including burials, cave painting, decoration of objects and body art. Such usage still occurs today.
Ochre is an iron oxide found in a range of colours from yellow to red and brown. Red ochre is particularly important in many desert cultures due to the belief that it represents the blood of ancestral beings and can provide protection and strength. Ochre is used by grinding it into a powder and mixing it with a fluid, such as water, blood or saliva.
Archaeological evidence for living sites of Ancient Aboriginal peoples comes in a variety of forms including fishing traps and weirs, stone-base huts, possible fireplaces and remains of meals and cooking activities. The evidence indicates that lifestyle practices varied across the continent and differed depending on climate, environment and natural resources.
Shell middens are the most obvious remains of meals and are useful because they provide insight into ancient Aboriginal diets and past environments and can also be radiocarbon dated to establish the age of a site.
The Coobool Creek collection consists of the remains of 126 individuals excavated from a sand ridge at Coobool Crossing, New South Wales, in 1950. After their excavation, they became part of the University of Melbourne collection until they were returned to the Aboriginal community for reburial in 1985.
The remains date from 9000 to 13,000 years old and are significant because of their large size when compared with Aboriginal people who appeared within the last 6000 years. They are physically similar to Kow Swamp people with whom they shared the cultural practice of artificial cranial deformation.
This ancient burial site in northern Victoria was excavated between 1968 and 1972. The human skeletons discovered here were extremely significant because they were accurately dated between 9500 to 14,000 years ago and demonstrated substantial differences between ancient and more recent Aboriginal people.
The remains of over forty individuals have been found at Kow Swamp and include those of men, women and children. This burial site is one of the largest from this time period anywhere in the world. Many of the skeletons have a greater skeletal mass, more robust jaw structures and larger areas of muscle attachment than in contemporary Aboriginal men. The female skeletons from this region also show similar differences when compared with modern Aboriginal women.
- ‘Kow Swamp 1’. Human skull rediscovered in 1967 in the National Museum of Victoria by Alan Thorne and Phillip Macumber. It is dated at 10,000 years old. The skull’s original burial location was traced through police reports, and excavations at Kow Swamp began soon after.
- ‘Kow Swamp 5’. This 13,000-year-old skull is one of the better-preserved examples from Kow Swamp. It has a greater skeletal mass, a more robust jaw structure and larger areas of muscle attachment than in contemporary Aboriginal men.
- ‘Kow Swamp 14’. These remains were of a male skeleton with knees were drawn up under the chest with the hands in front of the face. In other Kow Swamp burials the skeleton was fully extended. It is not known why different burial positions were used.
The oldest human remains in Australia were found at Lake Mungo in south-west New South Wales, part of the Willandra Lakes system. This site has been occupied by Aboriginal people from at least 47,000 years ago to the present. This age range is supported by numerous geochronological ageing techniques including Radiocarbon (C14) determinations, Optically Stimulated Thermoluminesence (OSL) and Thermoluminesence (TL). Lake Mungo has been devoid of water for the last 18,000 years and is now a dry lakebed. In the past, lower evaporation and higher runoff from the Great Dividing Range allowed the lakes to fill, supporting plentiful freshwater resources such as fish and shellfish, and making the lakes a valuable source of food for the people that occupied the area.
- Mungo Woman, also referred to as ‘Lake Mungo 1’ (WLH 1), was discovered in 1968. At 42,000 years old, this is the most securely dated human burial in Australia and the earliest ritually cremated remains found anywhere in the world. The cremation process shrinks bone and has made the skeleton of this originally small-bodied woman even smaller. Dr Alan Thorne reconstructed the skull from over 300 fragments.
- Mungo Man, also known as ‘Lake Mungo 3’ or (WLH 3) was discovered in 1974. Unlike Mungo Woman’s cremation, Mungo Man was laid out on his back for burial and covered in red ochre before being buried in the beach sands that bordered the lake. There has been some debate over the age of this burial and while dates ranging from 26,000 to 60,000 years old have been obtained, an age closer to 42,000 years old is widely accepted.
In 2001, Australian scientists claimed that they had extracted mitochondrial DNA from ‘Mungo Man’ and nine other ancient Australians. They concluded that the genes of the modern-looking ‘Mungo Man’ were different from modern humans, proving that not all Homo sapiens have the same recent ancestor as stated in the ‘Out of Africa’ theory. These claims are controversial and could not be replicated in further studies in 2016 (PNAS 2016), and the only DNA that could be recovered from Mungo Man was European and certainly a contaminant.
Ancient DNA is easily contaminated and rarely survives for 30,000 years in conditions like those found in Australia. A complete mitochondrial genome from WLH 4, found several kilometres from Mungo Man, has been reconstructed. This individual was probably buried after the lakes had dried up in the Holocene (less than 10,000 years ago) and contains DNA that falls within the modern human range.
A skull was found in 1925 at Cohuna, north-west Kow Swamp, Victoria, and is undated. However, the similarity between this skull and the Kow Swamp people suggests they are both from a similar time period. This skull’s long, high, flat forehead reflects the characteristics of cranial deformation and its teeth and palate are larger than the current Australian average.
Evidence of human activity at Keilor dates back nearly 40,000 years. Stone flakes and charcoal deposits have been found in the lowest archaeological levels.
One of the key remains from this site was that of a 12,000 year old skull discovered in 1940. It is one of the earlier prehistoric Aboriginal remains found in Australia.
A cranium was discovered in 1884 on the Darling Downs, Queensland. It was the first Pleistocene human skull to be found in Australia. It is dated to between 9000 and 11,000 years old.
When it was found, the skull was covered in calcium carbonate, which gave the skull a deformed appearance. After cleaning, it was discovered that this skull belonged to a boy of about 15 years of age, who had died as a result of a blow to the side of the head. Features of the skull, such as the teeth and jaws, are remarkably large, but do fit within the range of variation of the Australian Aboriginal population.
One of many cultural practices that can alter the appearance of human skeletons is skull deformation. There is evidence that some Aboriginal groups did practise skull deformation in ancient times. Australian scientist Dr Peter Brown proposed that the ‘robust’ features seen in skulls such as ‘Cohuna’ and those from Kow Swamp and Coobool Creek are the result of such practices in the past. Prolonged pressing and binding of the head can produce characteristics such as long receding foreheads, flat frontal and occipital bones and lengthening of the skull.
Adcock, G. J., et al. (2001). “Mitochondrial DNA sequences in ancient Australians: Implications for modern human origins.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 98(2): 537-542.
Bowler, J. M., et al. (2003). “New ages for human occupation and climatic change at Lake Mungo, Australia.” Nature 421: 837-840.
Durband, A. C. R., Daniel R.; Westaway, Michael (2009). “A new test of the sex of the Lake Mungo 3 skeleton.” Archaeology in Oceania 44(2): 77-83.
Heupink, T. H. S., et. al. (2016). “Ancient mtDNA sequences from the First Australians revisited.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 113(25): 6892-6897.
Allen, O’Connell et al. (2020). “A different paradigm for the colonisation of Sahul”, Archaeology in Oceania, Vol.55 (2020): 182–191
Early Human Migration: The Incredible Journey, Africa to America
This article is an excerpt from the Shortform summary of “Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind” by Yuval Noah Harari. Shortform has the world’s best summaries of books you should be reading.
What happened during the first early human migration? Where did humans start, and where did they end up? How did human migration affect other species?
The first early human migration was the era in which humans figured out how to cross the sea barrier and made it to Australia, 45,000 years ago. The next major early human migration happened 16,000 years ago, when man reached the American continent.
We’ll discuss the progress of the early human migrations and how they caused some of the biggest mass extinctions of all time.
Early Human Migration History
Before the Cognitive Revolution, humans lived solely on the landmass of Afro-Asia and a few surrounding islands. They didn’t alter these environments and ecosystems dramatically. Animals on the African and Asia continents had evolved alongside humans and knew how to avoid them and hold their own.
But as Homo sapiens migrated to other parts of the world, parts wholly unprepared to face the threat of human beings, this would change. We’ll look at the ecological impact of human migration to Australia, America, and then the rest of the world.
Human-Caused Extinction in Australia
Somehow, people of the ancient human migration managed to cross the sea barrier after the Cognitive Revolution. No one’s really sure how, but the best theory is that Sapiens in Indonesia learned how to build boats and managed to reach Australia. Human colonization of Australia is one of the most important events in history, on par with the moon landing. It was here that Sapiens rose to the top of the food chain and became the deadliest species in Earth’s history.
Before the arrival of humans during early human migration, Australia was home to many large animals that sound mythical to modern ears. They included:
- A kangaroo that was six feet tall and weighed 450 pounds
- Seven-foot long snakes
- A marsupial lion
- Flightless birds that were twice as big as ostriches
In just a few thousand years, all of these animals, and many more, were gone. 23 out of the 24 animals weighing 100 or more pounds became extinct.
It wasn’t just Australia. Wherever the early human migration went, humans left a trail of extinction behind. For example, Sapiens only reached New Zealand about 800 years ago. Within a couple hundred years, most of the local megafauna was gone, as was 60% of local bird species. There are numerous examples like this, making Sapiens in particular “look like an ecological serial killer.”
Early Human Migration to America
The disaster in Australia 45,000 years ago was the first mass extinction caused by humans, but it wasn’t the largest. The next major disaster was in America, 16,000 years ago.
Sapiens were the only humans to make it to America. This was the next early human migration. Humans of the Homo sapiens migration came in large numbers from Siberia, when the end of an ice age revealed a land bridge between Siberia and Alaska. Sapiens likely followed large prey like reindeer and mammoths into Alaska. Both were great sources of fat and fur, and hunters thrived.
This Homo sapiens migration to Alaska was surprising. For a species that evolved in Africa, Sapiens were quick to figure out how to adapt to this cold and inhospitable land. They made snowshoes, used needles to sew layers of furs and skins into thermal clothing, and made new weapons to kill their new prey.
In just a couple thousand years, maybe less, Sapiens had adapted to ecosystems and climates as diverse as those of the eastern U.S., the Mexican desert, the Amazon basin, and the Andean mountain valleys. They did all this adapting without altering their genes.
Shortly after Sapiens arrived, of 47 large animal genera in North America, 34 went extinct. Of 60 large animal genera in South America, 50 went extinct. Thousands of smaller animal species also went extinct.
Consequences of Early Human Migration
The pattern seen in Australia and America (early human migration and the subsequent extinction of many native species) repeated itself all over the world. Between the Cognitive and Agricultural Revolutions, humans caused half of the world’s large beasts to go extinct.
The first migrations out of Africa
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This image is made from multiple photographs and data to construct the best approximation of what earth looks like from outer space. Most of the data came from MODIS on a satellite 700km above the surface. Taken Feb 8 2002. Image: NASA compsite
About 2 million years ago, the first of our ancestors moved northwards from their homelands and out of Africa.
Why did it take so long to leave Africa?
The extensive arid environments of northern Africa and the Middle East were a major barrier blocking movement out of Africa. Before they could spread out of Africa, our ancestors needed to develop physical and mental capabilities that would enable them to survive in these harsh environments where food and fresh water were highly seasonal resources.
Who left Africa first?
Homo ergaster (or African Homo erectus) may have been the first human species to leave Africa. Fossil remains show this species had expanded its range into southern Eurasia by 1.75 million years ago. Their descendents, Asian Homo erectus, then spread eastward and were established in South East Asia by at least 1.6 million years ago.
However, an alternate theory proposes that hominins migrated out of Africa before Homo ergaster evolved, possibly about 2 million years ago, prior to the earliest dates of Homo erectus in Asia. These hominins may have been either australopithicines or, more likely, an unknown species of Homo, similar in appearance to Homo habilis. In this theory, the population found at Dmanisi represent a missing link in the evolution of Homo erectus/Homo ergaster. Perhaps too, the evolution of Homo ergaster occurred outside of Africa and there was considerable gene flow between African and Eurasian populations.
This theory has gained more support in recent years due to DNA research. Evidence from a genetic study indicates an expansion out of Africa about 1.9 million years ago and gene flow occurring between Asian and African populations by 1.5 million years ago. More physical evidence is needed from key areas in Eurasia such as Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan, but politics is currently making this difficult.
What made it possible to leave Africa?
While there is some debate about whether Homo ergaster was the first of our ancestors to leave Africa, they did possess the physical and cultural attributes that would have aided dispersal through the arid environments of northern Africa and the Middle East. These attributes included:
- a modern body shape with an efficient striding gait suited to travelling over long distances, although smaller statures are represented in the remains from Dmanisi
- a sufficiently developed intelligence to cope with unfamiliar environments, although did not require a brain size much bigger than Homo habilis, with an average brain size of 610cc
- improved technology to aid subsistence (Oldowan-style tools or Mode1 Technology have been found at sites in Dmanisi, Georgia, and northern China, both dating to 1.7 million years old)
- a diet that included more meat and which increased the food supply options in seasonally arid environments
Who left Africa next?
After the first early dispersals out of Africa, various other groups of early humans spread out of Africa as their populations grew. These dispersals were not regular or constant but instead occurred as waves of dispersal during periods with favourable climatic and environmental conditions.
These waves of dispersal out of Africa included movements eastward across southern Asia more than one million years ago and movements into western Europe within the last 900,000 years. Movements back into Africa also occurred.
Modern human migrations
More recently, modern humans began their dispersal out of Africa. This dispersal appears to have taken two forms – irregular occupation of the Levant and nearby sites by small populations and then migration on a mass scale.
The oldest known Homo sapiens fossils outside of Africa come from caves in Israel – Misliya (about 180,000 years old), Skhul (about 90,000 years old) and Qafzeh (about 120,000 years old). These probably represent populations that intermittently occupied the region and it is unlikely that there was direct evolutionary continuity between the Misliya and later Skhul/Qafzeh peoples. Genetic studies also support the idea of earlier dispersals of modern humans out of Africa starting from about 220,000 years ago.
There is also evidence in the form of stone tools that indicate the possibility that earlier dispersals reached beyond the Levant. Stone tools have been found in India dating to about 74,000 years old, in Yemen dating to between 70,000 and 80,000 years old, and in the United Arab Emirates dating to about 80,000 years old. Some of these tools resemble African Middle Stone Age technology, others are more like those used by Neanderthals in Europe and Homo sapiens and Neanderthals in the Levant. No human remains were found with the tools, but as Neanderthals have not been found in these regions, it is assumed the makers were modern humans.
Most experts conclude, from genetic and material evidence, that migration on a mass scale only occurred within the last 60,000 years or so.
By 100,000 years ago, humans had dispersed and diversified into at least four species. Our own species, Homo sapiens, lived in Africa and the Middle East, Homo neanderthalensis lived in Europe, and Homo floresiensis in southern Asia. DNA from human remains in Denisova cave, Russia, indicates a fourth species was also still extant when Homo sapiens was migrating through southern Asia about 60,000 years ago. Modern Melanesians have about 4% of this DNA. The species is unknown, but may be late surviving Homo heidelbergensis or a yet-to-be-discovered species. This diversity disappeared about 28,000 years ago, however, and only one human species now survives.