Learn to Skydive

Learn to Skydive from the Best Instructors in the Industry

Did you know that in as little as a few weeks you can learn to skydive solo and complete all the requirements needed to apply for an “A” skydiving license?

Skydive Paraclete XP in Raeford, NC is home to one of the most progressive and comprehensive skydiving schools in the United States. We offer a unique, United States Parachute Association (USPA) approved training progression called Paraclete Student Program (PSP). Our PSP program is taught by some of the most skilled skydiving instructors in the world and incorporates wind tunnel training to help accelerate your progression in the sport.

Our unique program, combined with our state of the art training facilities, provides our students with the best learning environment possible.

Paraclete Student Program (PSP)

PSP is a skydiving course that consists of 18 levels and covers all* requirements to apply for a USPA ‘A’ license. This license allows you to jump with your friends and skydive anywhere in the world, but it is just the beginning.

Our program is designed not only to teach basic skills but to provide a clear path towards becoming a well-rounded skydiver. Our progression continues past student levels and offers continued education. Interactive seminars, networking, multi-discipline skills camps and exclusive wind tunnel membership options at our state of the art indoor skydiving facility, Paraclete XP SkyVenture. PSP provides everything you need to become a member of our amazing skydiving community.

*Except a total jump number of 25. After graduation, you can jump solo to complete this number.

instructor guides learn to skydive student through exit and freefall

learn to skydive student flies receives hands-on attention from instructor in freefall

student in freefall learning to skydive solo

student deploys their own parachute during skydiving course

student deploys parachute during learn to skydive course

What to Expect

Stage 1: Ground Training

The first jump course takes place at our training center at Skydive Paraclete XP. This course typically takes 4-5 hours to complete and covers all theoretical and practical training necessary to prepare you for your first solo skydive, including skydiving equipment, aircraft procedures, exit procedures, freefall, deployment, canopy control, and dealing with malfunctions (should they occur).

Stage 2: Wind Tunnel Training

To ensure that you get the most out of your first jump and to accelerate your progression we practice basic body flight in our Skyventure Paraclete XP wind tunnel before your first solo skydive. Years of experience have taught us how valuable wind tunnel training is and it is a prerequisite for our PSP program.

Stage 3: Freefall and Canopy Training

Once you have met all the prerequisites, you are ready to make your first solo skydive! At first, your instructor will hold onto you in the air, but you will quickly progress to independent flight. By jump number 4 you will exit the airplane on your own and work on more advanced skills. These skills consist of heading control, turns, instability recovery, flips, relative work, advanced exits, docking, and tracking.

Throughout the program, you will also learn about equipment, parachute packing, aircraft spotting, winds and weather conditions, canopy flight and all the technical aspects you need to know to skydive.

Get More Info and Register for an Upcoming Course

For more information about our PSP program and learning to skydive in general, please read through our learn to skydive FAQs. If you have additional questions, please contact a member of our team for assistance!

Prices for PSP are listed in the table below. We offer our PSP First Jump Course on a regular basis. Check our events calendar for dates and register online for an upcoming course.

Paraclete Student Progression Prices

Follow this path to become a licensed USPA Skydiver. Click the button below to register for an upcoming First Jump Course.

The Opponent Process Theory of Color Vision

Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author and educational consultant focused on helping students learn about psychology.

Verywell Mind content is rigorously reviewed by a team of qualified and experienced fact checkers. Fact checkers review articles for factual accuracy, relevance, and timeliness. We rely on the most current and reputable sources, which are cited in the text and listed at the bottom of each article. Content is fact checked after it has been edited and before publication. Learn more.

Emily is a board-certified science editor who has worked with top digital publishing brands like Voices for Biodiversity, Study.com, GoodTherapy, Vox, and Verywell.

Close-up of a nature scene reflection in a woman's green eye

Juliet White / Getty Images

Opponent process theory suggests that the ability to perceive color is controlled by three receptor complexes with opposing actions. These three receptor complexes are the red-green complex, the blue-yellow complex, and the black-white complex.

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Current research suggests that the true pairings for these receptor complexes are actually blue-yellow, red-cyan, and green-magenta.

According to the opponent process theory, the mind can only register the presence of one color of a pair at a time because the two colors oppose one another. The same kind of cell that activates when you see red will deactivate in green light, and the cells that activate in green light will deactivate when you see red. This explains why you can’t see yellowish-blue or reddish-green.

The opponent process theory of color vision, along with trichromatic theory, contributed to the current understanding of sight. This article discusses this theory, how it works, and the role it plays in our current understanding of vision.

Opponent Process Theory vs. Trichromatic Theory

The trichromatic theory of color vision suggests that people have cells that detect blue, red, and green wavelengths. These are then combined into other colors to create a visible spectrum.

While the trichromatic theory clarifies some of the processes involved in how we see color, it does not explain all aspects of color vision. The opponent process theory of color vision was developed by Ewald Hering, who noted that there are some color combinations that people never see.

For example, while we often see greenish-blue or blueish-reds, we do not see reddish-green or yellowish-blue. Opponent process theory suggests that color perception is controlled by the activity of two opponent systems: a blue-yellow mechanism and a red-green mechanism.

What Opponent Process Theory Means

The opponent color process works through a process of excitatory and inhibitory responses, with the two components of each mechanism opposing each other.

For example, red creates a positive (or excitatory) response in a cell, while green creates a negative (or inhibitory) response. When this cell is activated, it tells the brain that you are seeing red. Meanwhile, there is an opponent cell that gets a positive response to green wavelengths of light and an inhibitory response to red.

These two types of cells in a red-green receptor complex can’t be activated at the same time.

Example of Opponent Process Theory

The opponent process theory helps explain the perceptual phenomena of negative afterimages. Have you ever noticed how you may see a brief afterimage in complementary colors after staring at an image for an extended period of time after staring away?

You can see this effect in action by trying out the following demonstration.

  • Take a small square of white paper and place it at the center of a larger red square.
  • Look at the center of the white square for approximately 30 seconds, and then immediately look at a plain sheet of white paper and blink to see the afterimage.
  • What color is the afterimage? You can repeat this experiment using green, yellow, and blue.

So, how does opponent process theory explain afterimages? According to opponent process theory, staring at the red image for 30 to 60 seconds caused the white and red opponent cells to become “fatigued” (meaning they started sending weaker signals to save energy).

When you shift your focus to a blank surface, those cells no longer have the stimuli telling them to fire. When the white and red receptor cells briefly de-activate, the opposing black and green cells fire in response. As a result, you will see a brief afterimage that is black and green instead of white and red.

Modern Explanations: Complementary Color Theory

Current research has updated this explanation slightly. It seems the green receptor cells do not activate because the red cells become inhibited.

In fact, the afterimage seems to be generated in the brain’s cortex, not the retina.

According to the complementary color theory, each receptor pairing registers complementary colors—there is no white/black pairing. When complementary colors are added together, they make white.

When you were staring at the red image, your brain got used to the red and suppressed the signals it was getting from red cells. When you the shifted your gaze to the white paper, your brain saw less red light than before and mentally “subtracted” red from what it is seeing.

The green cells, however, hadn’t been suppressed and could send full-strength signals. White “minus” red is green, hence why you saw a flash of green.

Which Color Vision Theory Is Correct?

Although complementary colors theory is the most up-to-date, the trichromatic theory and opponent process theory help account for the complexity of color vision.

  • The trichromatic theory explains how the three types of cones detect different light wavelengths.
  • The opponent process theory explains how the cones connect to the ganglion cells and how opposing cells are excited or inhibited by certain wavelengths of light.
  • The complementary color theory explains which wavelengths translate to which colors and how these colors are processed in the brain.

Frequently Asked Questions

Opponent process theory helps explain aspects of color vision. The activation of one type of cone cell leads to the inhibition of the other two. This opponent process is thought to be responsible for our perception of color and explains why people experience afterimages.

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Opponent process theory suggests that looking at one color for a long period causes those receptor cells to become fatigued. When they begin sending weaker signals, their opposing cells fire, sending signals that cause the perception of the opposing color.

Opponent process theory was introduced by the physiologist Ewald Herin in the late 1800s.

The McCollough effect is a visual phenomenon in which looking at images with red horizontal lines and green vertical lines before shifting to an image of black and white lines. As a result of the initial induct with red and green lines, the black and white lines look pink. The opponent process has been implicated as a partial explanation, but the exact mechanisms behind the effect are not fully understood.

Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.

Bernstein DA. Essentials of Psychology. 4th ed. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning; 2011.

Zeki S, Cheadle S, Pepper J, Mylonas D. The constancy of colored after-images. Front Hum Neurosci. 2017;11:229. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2017.00229

By Kendra Cherry
Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author and educational consultant focused on helping students learn about psychology.

5 educational learning theories and how to apply them

How educational learning theories can impact your education

Educational learning theories

Teaching and learning may appear to be a universal experience. After all, everyone goes to school and learns more or less the same thing, right? Well, not quite.

As the prolific number of educational theorists in learning suggests, there’s actually an impressive variety of educational approaches to the art and science of teaching. Many of them have been pioneered by educational theorists who’ve studied the science of learning to determine what works best and for whom.

“Learning is defined as a process that brings together personal and environmental experiences and influences for acquiring, enriching or modifying one’s knowledge, skills, values, attitudes, behavior and worldviews,” notes the International Bureau of Education. “Learning theories develop hypotheses that describe how this process takes place.”

Generally, there are five widely accepted learning theories teachers rely on:

  • Behaviorism learning theory
  • Cognitive learning theory
  • Constructivism learning theory
  • Humanism learning theory
  • Connectivism learning theory

Educational theorists, teachers, and experts believe these theories can inform successful approaches for teaching and serve as a foundation for developing lesson plans and curriculum.

What are learning theories?

Theories in education didn’t begin in earnest until the early 20th century, but curiosity about how humans learn dates back to the ancient Greek philosophers Socrates, Plato and Aristotle. They explored whether knowledge and truth could be found within oneself (rationalism) or through external observation (empiricism).

By the 19th century, psychologists began to answer this question with scientific studies. The goal was to understand objectively how people learn and then develop teaching approaches accordingly.

In the 20th century, the debate among educational theorists centered on behaviorist theory versus cognitive psychology. Or, in other words, do people learn by responding to external stimuli or by using their brains to construct knowledge from external data?

The five educational learning theories

Today, much research, study, and debate have given rise to the following five learning theories:

BehaviorismAs Simply Psychology puts it: “Behaviorism is only concerned with observable stimulus-response behaviors, as they can be studied in a systematic and observable manner.”Learning is based on a system of routines that “drill” information into a student’s memory bank, as well as positive feedback from teachers and an educational institution itself. If students do an excellent job, they receive positive reinforcement and are signaled out for recognition.
CognitivismLearning relies on both external factors (like information or data) and the internal thought process.Developed in the 1950s, this theory moves away from behaviorism to focus on the mind’s role in learning. According to the International Bureau of Education: “In cognitive psychology, learning is understood as the acquisition of knowledge: the learner is an information-processor who absorbs information, undertakes cognitive operations on it and stocks it in memory.”
ConstructivismThe learner builds upon his or her previous experience and understanding to “construct” a new understanding.“The passive view of teaching views the learner as ‘an empty vessel’ to be filled with knowledge,” explains Simply Psychology, “whereas constructivism states that learners construct meaning only through active engagement with the world (such as experiments or real-world problem solving).”
HumanismA “learner-centric approach” in which the potential is the focus rather than the method or materials.With the understanding that people are inherently good, humanism focuses on creating an environment conducive to self-actualization. In doing so, learners’ needs are met and they are then free to determine their own goals while the teacher assists in meeting those learning goals.
ConnectivismInformed by the digital age, connectivism departs from constructivism by identifying and remediating gaps in knowledge.Strongly influenced by technology, connectivism focuses on a learner’s ability to frequently source and update accurate information. Knowing how and where to find the best information is as important as the information itself.
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Why are learning theories important?

It is part of the human condition to crave knowledge. Consequently, numerous scientists, psychologists, and thought leaders have devoted their careers to studying learning theories. Understanding how people learn is a critical step in optimizing the learning process.

It is for this reason that teacher colleges or educator preparation programs spend so much time having teacher candidates study human development and multiple learning theories. Foundational knowledge of how humans learn, and specifically how a child learns and develops cognitively, is essential for all educators to be their most effective instructors in the classroom.

Pamela Roggeman, EdD, dean of University of Phoenix’s College of Education, explains her take on the role learning theory plays in preparing teachers:

“Just as no two people are the same, no two students learn in the exact the same way or at the exact same rate. Effective educators need to be able to pivot and craft instruction that meets the needs of the individual student to address the needs of the ‘whole child.’ Sound knowledge in multiple learning theories is a first step to this and another reason why great teachers work their entire careers to master both the art and the science of teaching.”

Although espousing a particular learning theory isn’t necessarily required in most teaching roles, online learning author and consultant Tony Bates points out that most teachers tend to follow one or another theory, even if it’s done unconsciously.

So, whether you’re an aspiring or experienced teacher, a student, or a parent of a student (or some combination thereof), knowing more about each theory can make you more effective in the pursuit of knowledge.

Are there other theories in education?

different types of educational learning theories

Like students themselves, learning theories in education are varied and diverse. In addition to the five theories outlined above, there are still more options, including:

  • Transformative learning theory: This theory is particularly relevant to adult learners. It posits that new information can essentially change our worldviews when our life experience and knowledge are paired with critical reflection.
  • Social learning theory: This theory incorporates some of the tacit tenets of peer pressure. Specifically, students observe other students and model their own behavior accordingly. Sometimes it’s to emulate peers; other times it’s to distinguish themselves from peers. Harnessing the power of this theory involves getting students’ attention, focusing on how students can retain information, identifying when it’s appropriate to reproduce a previous behavior, and determining students’ motivation.
  • Experiential learning theory: There are plenty of clichés and parables about teaching someone something by doing it, although it wasn’t until the early 1980s that it became an official learning theory. This approach emphasizes both learning about something and experiencing it so that students can apply knowledge in real-world situations.

How educational theories influence learning

Educational theories influence learning in a variety of ways. For teachers, learning theory examples can impact their approach to instruction and classroom management. Finding the right approach (even if it’s combining two or more learning theories) can make the difference between an effective and inspiring classroom experience and an ineffective one.

Applied learning theories directly impact a classroom experience in a variety of ways, such as:

  • Providing students with structure and a comfortable, steady environment.
  • Helping educators, administrators, students and parents align on goals and outcomes.
  • Empoweringteachers to be, as Bates says, “in a better position to make choices about how to approach their teaching in ways that will best fit the perceived needs of their students.”
  • Impacting howand what a person learns.
  • Helping outsiders (colleges, testing firms, etc.) determine what kind of education you had or are receiving.
  • Allowing students a voice in determining how the class will be managed.
  • Deciding if instruction will be mostly teacher-led or student-led.
  • Determining how much collaboration will happen in a classroom.

How to apply learning theories

So, how do learning theories apply in the real world? Education is an evolving field with a complicated future. And, according to Roggeman, the effects of applied educational theory can be long-lasting.

“The learning theories we experienced as a student influence the type of work environment we prefer as adults. For example, if one experienced classrooms based heavily on social learning during the K-12 years, as an adult, one may be very comfortable in a highly collaborative work environment. Reflection on one’s own educational history might serve as an insightful tool as to one’s own fulfillment in the workplace as an adult.”

Educational theories have come a long way since the days of Socrates and even the pioneers of behaviorism and cognitivism. And while learning theories will no doubt continue to evolve, teachers and students alike can reap the benefits of this evolution as we continue to develop our understanding of how humans most effectively learn.

Educational theories of learning are one thing. Adult learning theories are another. Learn more on our blog.

Ready to put theory into practice? Explore Foundations in Virtual Teaching at University of Phoenix!

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Source https://www.verywellmind.com/what-is-the-opponent-process-theory-of-color-vision-2795830

Source https://www.phoenix.edu/blog/educational-learning-theories.html

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