# How Skydivers Reach Terminal Velocity And Transform Energy

Jul 13, 2022

## How Skydivers Reach Terminal Velocity And Transform Energy

When a skydiver reaches terminal velocity, the energy transformation that occurs is kinetic energy transformed into potential energy. The skydiver’s kinetic energy is converted into gravitational potential energy as they fall. The faster the skydiver is falling, the more kinetic energy they have, and the greater the conversion into potential energy.

When the sky driver reaches the height of the aircraft, he can take advantage of potential energy that has been converted to kinetic energy by jumping.

When a skydiver enters the plane at 20,000 feet, he generates a certain amount of energy. After he’s jumped from the plane, he generates kinetic energy, which is used to propel the plane.

## What Energy Transformation Occurs When A Skydiver Jumps?

Credit: Pinterest

A skydiver jumping from a plane undergoes several energy transformations. The energy of the skydiver’s movement comes from the gravitational potential energy that is stored in the skydiver’s body. This energy is converted into kinetic energy as the skydiver falls through the air. The kinetic energy is then converted into heat energy as the skydiver collides with the ground.

An object that falls from rest is converted to kinetic energy as it loses its gravitational potential. Lifting a ball into the air before it falls gives it “potential energy,” which indicates that the ball has the ability to exert some force. The ball gains’momentum’ (energy of motion) after it is dropped, and it loses potential energy as it moves. What is energy transformation in nuclear reactor? Explain how energy can transfer and transform when people play the guitar. The radio is powered by electrical energy, which travels along wires that connect to a power plant. Another form of kinetic energy is sound, which is produced by the movement of air.

### The Energy Of Skydiving

What happens to your energy as you skydive? When a person jumps from a plane and falls to the ground, the potential energy stored within the skydiver changes to kinetic energy. The parachute, which slows the fall of the skydiver by creating air resistance, must be used to reduce the amount of kinetic energy that the skydiver generates as he falls. Does gravitational potential energy change as a person falls? Potential energy is stored in that system as the energy stored in that system. When the skydiver reaches Earth, the force of gravity transfers potential energy to it and converts it into kinetic energy.

## What Happens To Energy At Terminal Velocity?

As soon as a body reaches terminal velocity, the potential energy is converted to kinetic energy, which is what generates heat and most of the energy is lost to the environment.

The spherical object is dropped from an altitude sufficient that it can achieve terminal velocity for some time before it strikes the ground. What is the gravitational potential energy of expansion that transforms into energy when a terminal velocity is attained? What would happen if a sphere were in a vacuum? Gravity potential energy can be obtained by dragging a spherical object in an upward or downward direction. The Ug rate fluctuates depending on the height of the object until it reaches rest or terminal velocity. When terminal velocity reaches Ke, it is constant, but Ug changes. We need to investigate other forms of energy that we didn’t cover.

A mass is a factor that affects an object’s kinetic energy, which is proportional to its speed and mass. When an object falls, its kinetic energy decreases, as it loses speed. However, as an object falls further, it becomes more and more dependent on its mass and height, resulting in an increasing dependence on kinetic energy. The object’s total energy remains constant, which is why it spreads out over a larger area.

## What Is The Energy Conversion Illustrated When Skydiving?

The energy conversion illustrated when skydiving is the conversion of potential energy to kinetic energy. When a person jumps out of an airplane, they have a lot of potential energy. This is because they are high up in the air and they have the ability to fall a long way. As they start to fall, they begin to convert their potential energy into kinetic energy. This is the energy of motion. The faster they fall, the more kinetic energy they have.

### Diving Into The Details Of Energy

Parachutists can generate kinetic energy as well as heat during a skydive by converting potential energy into kinetic energy and heat as a result of air resistance. The parachutist’s air resistance increases rapidly as he or she descends in constant motion because the air resistance increases rapidly.
What are types of energy used in diving? When a diver’s weight is applied to gravity, it generates kinetic energy (the diving motion) that causes him to splash into the water. It is their gravitational potential energy, which is converted into kinetic energy when they jump off the diving board after the gravitational potential energy has been generated.

## What Type Of Energy Is Stored In A Skydiver Before He Jumps?

A skydiver in the Earth’s gravity field uses Ug to store energy in the gravitational field between two masses, for example. After a skydiver jumps out of a plane, the potential energy stored in the field is converted to kinetic energy.

### Is Skydiving Potential Or Kinetic Energy?

A skydiver’s potential energy is stored inside him as he rises in the sky with the plane. When a skydiver freefalls from the plane, he generates kinetic energy, which changes the potential energy in the skydivers.

#### High-speed Airplane Travel: Energy Conversions In Action

The plane’s mechanical energy is converted into kinetic energy during high-speed flights when the plane rises above the ground. When an aircraft passes through a gap, it generates kinetic energy by converting the energy of the gravitational potential into kinetic energy.

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### What Type Of Energy Is Jumping Up And Down?

When you jump on a trampoline, your body produces kinetic energy, which changes with time. Your kinetic energy rises and falls with your speed as you jump.

#### The Different Forms Of Energy

The energy of a molecule or atom can be held together by a chemical bond. These molecules and atoms can become more energy-dense by breaking their chemical bonds, as can heat or motion. An electric charge is a unit of electrical energy. There are electric charges in the universe that are either positive or negative, and they spread around the universe. Electric charges that are more concentrated produce a higher current. Energy from the sun, stars, and other stars is released into the sky as space expands. Light and heat are generated by these objects, which represents the energy that we see. Mechanical energy is produced by the movement of objects. The amount of power is determined by a variety of factors, including the amount of muscle, the amount of wind, and the amount of water flowing through the body. A thermal energy is created when an object reaches the sun’s surface. A hotter object has more thermal energy when compared to a cooler object. Nuclear energy is produced as the nucleus of an atom is converted into a particle known as a neutron. After splitting atoms, the neutron can create energy in the process.

## 61 Physical Model for Terminal Velocity

After jumping, a skydiver begins gaining speed which increases the air resistance they experience. Eventually they will move fast enough that the air resistance is equal in size to their weight , but in opposite direction so they have no net force . This processes is illustrated by free body diagrams for a skydiver with 90 kg mass in the following image:

Free body diagrams of a person with 90 kg mass during a skydive. The initial speed is zero, so drag force is zero. As speed increases, the drag force grows, eventually cancelling out the person’s weight. At that point acceleration is zero and terminal velocity is reached.

## Dynamic Equilibrium

With a net force of zero the skydiver must be in equilibrium , but they are not in static equilibrium because they are not static (motionless). Instead they are in dynamic equilibrium , which means that they are moving, but the motion isn’t changing because all the forces are still balanced (net force is zero). This concept is summarized by Newton’s First Law , which tells us that an object’s motion will not change unless it experiences a net force. Newton’s first law is sometimes called the Law of Inertia because inertia is the name given to an object’s tendency to resist changes in motion. Newton’s First Law applies to objects that are not moving and to objects that are already moving. Regarding the skydiver, we are applying Newton’s First Law to translational motion (back and forth, up and down), but it also holds for the effect of net torques on changes in rotational motion. Changes in motion are known as accelerations and we will learn more about how net forces cause translational accelerations in upcoming chapters.

Diagram of a concussion. “Concussion Anatomy” by Max Andrews via wikimedia commons.

When the head is travelling in a certain direction with constant speed the brain and skull are moving together. If an impact causes the the motion of the skull to change suddenly, the brain tends to continue its original motion according to Newton’s First Law of Motion. The resulting impact between the fragile brain and the hard skull may result in a concussion. Recent research has shown that even without the occurrence of concussions, the damage caused by sub-concussive events like this can accumulate to cause Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) [2] .

## Dependence of Terminal Velocity on Mass

We already know from our experimental work during the Unit 3 lab that increasing mass leads to increasing terminal speed . We can now understand that this behavior occurs because greater mass leads to a greater weight and thus a greater speed required before the drag force ( air resistance ) is large enough to balance out the weight and dynamic equilibrium is achieved.

### Everyday Example: Tandem Skydive

First-time skydivers are typically attached to an instructor (tandem skydiving). During a tandem skydive the bodies are stacked, so the shape and cross-sectional area of the object don’t change much, but the mass does. As a consequence, the terminal speed for tandem diving would be high enough to noticeably reduce the fall time and possibly be dangerous. Increasing the air resistance to account for the extra mass is accomplished by deploying a small drag chute that trails behind the skydivers, as seen in the photo below.

Tandem skydivers with a small speed-limiting drag chute trailing behind. Image Credit: Fallschirm Tandemsprung bei Jochen Schweizer By Jochen Schweizer via Wikimedia Commons

## A Physical Model for Terminal Velocity

When the skydiver has reached terminal speed and remains in a state of dynamic equilibrium , we know the size of the drag force must be equal to the skydiver’s weight , but in the opposite direction. This concept will allow us to determine how the skydiver’s mass should affect terminal speed. We start be equating the air resistance with the weight:

Everyday Examples: Terminal Speed of the Human Body

Let’s estimate the terminal speed of the human body. We start with the previous equation:

Reinforcement Exercises

## Acceleration During a Skydive

We have now analyzed the skydive after terminal speed was reached. Prior to this point the forces of drag and weight are not equal, therefore the skydiver is not in dynamic equilibrium and speed will change over time. In order to analyze the early part of the skydive we need to quantify changes motion and learn how those changes are related to the net force. The next chapters will help us with those two goals.

by Max Andrews – Own work. This file was derived from: Concussion mechanics.svg, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=19490504↵ by Chad A Tagge, et. al, Brain, Oxford Academic↵
1. By Jochen Schweizer GmbH [CC BY-SA 4.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], from Wikimedia Commons↵ by Engineering Toolbox↵
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distance traveled per unit time

a force acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid

the force of gravity on on object, typically in reference to the force of gravity caused by Earth or another celestial body

the total amount of remaining unbalanced force on an object

a graphical illustration used to visualize the forces applied to an object

a state of having no unbalanced forces or torques

the state being in equilibrium (no unbalanced forces or torques) and also having no motion

a state of being in motion, but having no net force, thus the motion is constant

an object’s motion will not change unless it experiences a net force

the tenancy of an object to resist changes in motion

motion by which a body shifts from one point in space to another (up-down, back-forth, left-right)

remaining unbalanced torque on an object

a measurement of the amount of matter in an object made by determining its resistance to changes in motion (inertial mass) or the force of gravity applied to it by another known mass from a known distance (gravitational mass). The gravitational mass and an inertial mass appear equal.

the speed at which restive forces such as friction and drag balance driving forces and speed stops increasing, e.g. the gravitational force on a falling object is balanced by air resistance

a force applied by a fluid to any object moving with respect to the fluid, which acts opposite to the relative motion of the object relative to the fluid

The cross-sectional area is the area of a two-dimensional shape that is obtained when a three-dimensional object – such as a cylinder – is sliced perpendicular to some specified axis at a point. For example, the cross-section of a cylinder – when sliced parallel to its base – is a circle

a number characterizing the effect of object shape and orientation on the drag force, usually determined experimentally

relation between the amount of a material and the space it takes up, calculated as mass divided by volume.

## Distance and Time to Reach Terminal Velocity While Skydiving

Falling At Terminal Velocity

Skydiving is an adrenaline pumping and fun activity specifically due to the awesome feeling of falling at terminal velocity through the air. As people often lose perspective for distances and time when skydiving, the question arises what distance and time are needed to reach terminal velocity.

A typical skydiver on a belly-to-earth position will reach terminal velocity at a speed of approximately 120 mph (193 km/h) after 12 seconds of freefall and a fallen distance of 1,500 feet (450m). Skydivers can also attain higher speed and distance depending on the following four factors.

### The Four Factors That Determine The Terminal Velocity (And How To Manipulate Them)

#### How The Jump Height Defines Terminal Velocity For Skydivers

The first important factor is jumping altitude. In theory, it should hold true that the higher the jumping altitude is, the longer the freefall and the higher the terminal velocity will be.

In practice, however, normal skydives are not likely to recognize this effect.

For example, the normal skydiving altitude for beginners is between 10,000-15,000 feet which will allow the jumper between 30-60 seconds of free fall. The skydiver is expected to reach a terminal velocity of 127.893 mp/h (206 km/h) after 12 seconds and a fallen distance of 1,500ft (450 m).

In comparison, experienced divers can go as high as 16,000 feet without oxygen support and would be able to enjoy at least 70 seconds of freefall. Despite the higher jumping altitude, they would only reach a terminal velocity of 127.894 mp/h which will not feel any different to 127.893 mp/h.

If skydivers want to reach higher speeds, they can either change their body position or they can increase their jump height tremendously by performing a so-called HALO jump.

A HALO jump classifies a jump with an altitude above 30,000 feet. This is so high that the skydiver will require special equipment for breathing and navigating.

Skydivers reach a higher terminal velocity during a HALO jump not only because of a longer free fall but also because of less air resistance. Air resistance is the force that works contrary to the gravitational pull of the earth i.e. it limits the terminal velocity skydivers can reach. (I will explain this relationship in more detail later in this post.)

Because air density decreases with increasing altitude skydivers will face less air resistance when jumping from 30,000 ft than from 10,000 ft. As a result, they will accelerate faster and to a higher terminal velocity. However, skydivers really need to increase their height by huge distances in order to recognize an effect.

On 24 October 2014, at the age of 57, Google’s Senior Vice President Alan Eustace set a new exit altitude record of 135,898ft (41,422 m) above Roswell, New Mexico, USA. As normal planes do not fly this high, he reached the desired altitude with the help of a helium-filled balloon.

Once he reached his desired altitude, he detached himself and fell to the earth at a speed of 808 mp/h (1,300km/h). The increased jump height together with less air resistance helped him to accelerate to this speed and to achieve the highest and longest free fall in human history (4 minutes and 27 seconds).

If you want to achieve higher terminal velocity you “just” need to jump from a much higher altitude! If you are interested in knowing more about the biggest altitude that humans can jump from (including whether we can jump from space), check this post.

#### How The Jumpers Weight Impacts How Fast You Can Fall

The overall weight of the skydiver (i.e. weight of the jumper + skydiving equipment) also increases the maximum achievable terminal velocity.

The average skydiving equipment weighs 55 pounds (25 kg). If the skydiver weighs 175 pounds (80 kg), his overall weight will be 230 pounds (105 kg). As a result, he will be able to achieve a terminal velocity of 147 mp/h (235 km/h) after 13-14 seconds of free fall and after a fallen distance 1,700ft (540 m).

In contrast, a skydiver who weighs 220 pounds (100 kg) will be able to reach a terminal velocity of 160 mp/h.

In order to leverage this effect, small skydivers sometimes choose to wear weight belts that will increase their speed. More specifically, during formation jump, it is really important that the skydivers fall at the same speed – otherwise, it would be nearly impossible to grab each other and to stabilize the formation during the fall. As a result, skydivers need to wear weight belts in order to have the same weight.

In competitions like speed skydiving, the jumper’s weight will also matter since the goal is to achieve and maintain the highest possible terminal velocity over a given distance.

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Most skydiving centers in the US set their weight limit at 240 pounds for solo jumps and at 220 – 250 pounds for tandem jumps. If you are overweight and want to perform a tandem jump, I have written a post that explains the weight limits and presents ways to jump even if you exceed those limits. You can find the post here.

#### How You Can Play Around With Your Falling Position To Be Faster

The third factor that defines the terminal velocity of skydivers is their position in the air. If skydivers fly in a head-down or feet-down position they have much less air resistance than in a belly-to-earth position.

The different positions can result in a speed difference of up to 40 mp/h (65 km/h).

If you are beginner, you need to start with a stable belly-to-earth position and slowly experiment with movements in the air. Once you have performed enough jumps, you can move to the feet-down position and finally to the head-down position. It is important to progress slowly here as any mistake can result in a wrong parachute deployment.

In competitions and formation jumps, skydivers often fly in a vertical position because it is essential to track through the air.

For example, on 31 July 2015, 164 skydivers broke the head down world record in Illinois. They fell at a speed between 190-240 mph and formed a vertical head down formation in the shape of a giant flower at a jump height of 19,700 feet.

#### Why You Should Choose Good Weather Condition To Jump

Last but not least: weather conditions. Depending on the weather conditions, skydivers will again face a different air density and air resistance. Hotter air for example is less dense than cold air. Therefore, skydivers cut through hot air more easily and reach a higher terminal velocity.

In addition, skydivers can avoid jumping in areas of ascending wind. Ascending wind does not only slow you down but is quite unpredictable and therefore dangerous.

You can achieve a higher terminal velocity if you jump during warm weather. However, this effect is probably too small to be noticed.

### The Underlying Physical Forces of Terminal Velocity

If you are interested in understanding why the four factors determine the terminal velocity, I explained the physical mechanisms below.

Air drag – sometimes called air resistance, it is a force acting upon the opposite of a solid object. When there’s air resistance, heavy objects will have a higher terminal velocity than light objects. When a skydiver jumps from an airplane there is no air drag force yet. He will continue to accelerate to higher speeds until he encounters an amount of air resistance that is equal to his weight.

Gravity – is the universal force that attracts objects to each other (i.e. to the center of the earth). The downward force of gravity remains constant regardless of the velocity at which the object is moving but increases with increases proximity. As the skydiver speeds up and comes close to the earth, he will experience a larger force of gravity that pulls him down and makes him fall faster.

Air Drag Force = Force Of Gravity
When the air drag force is equal to the force of gravity, the object reaches zero acceleration and falls into terminal velocity.

For skydivers, achieving a state of zero acceleration does not feel like falling but actually floating or even flying through the air. It is one of the feelings that skydivers enjoy most besides the breathtaking and majestic view.

### What Is The Terminal Velocity On A Skydive Tandem Jump

During tandem jumps, we need to take into account the combined weight of the jumper and the instructor since each skydiving company has different weight limits. For example, a 165 lbs (75 kg) jumper with an instructor of the same weight at a jump altitude of 10,000ft will reach a terminal velocity of 170 mph.

If the same jumper jumped with an instructor that weighs 209 lbs (95 kg), he would achieve a speed of 270 mph and would experience a free fall of between 30-60 seconds.

If you perform a tandem jump, you will be much faster than during a solo jump due to the increased weight.

### What Is The Highest Recorded Falling Speed Of A Human?

On 14 October 2012, at the age of 43, Austrian daredevil Felix Baumgartner broke the World’s record by becoming the first skydiver to reach a supersonic speed of 843.6 mph (1,357.6 km/h) and by becoming the first human to break the sound barrier (768 mph; 1,235.98 km/h;) in freefall.

He was able to achieve a speed much higher than the normal terminal velocity of a skydiver due to the much higher height and because of less air resistance at the exit altitude of 127,852ft (38,969.4 m).

This jump is not something that will be easily repeated. The Red Bull Stratos Project took five years of preparation including developing new equipment, finding the best jumping spot and training physically for the extreme conditions of the jump.

During this jump, Felix Baumgartner smashed eight world records in a span of three hours. His free fall lasted for about 4 minutes and 20 seconds and the whole journey took 9 minutes and 9 seconds.

Hi, I’m Kai. The first time I jumped out of an airplane and experienced free fall was one of the most amazing moments of my life. For me, skydiving does not only stand for freedom and independence but being present in the moment and being respectful to others and oneself. Now I want to share what I’ve learned with you.

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Hi, I’m Kai. The first time I jumped out of an airplane and experienced free fall was one of the most amazing moments of my life. For me, skydiving does not only stand for freedom and independence but being present in the moment and being respectful to others and oneself. Now I want to share what I’ve learned with you.

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