How to Write a Bibliography, with Examples


You spent the past six hours grinding out your latest paper, but finally, it’s finished. It’s late, you’re exhausted, and all you want to do is click “Submit Assignment” and then get some sleep.

Not so fast. If your paper doesn’t have a properly formatted bibliography, it’s not finished.

A bibliography is a list of all the sources you consulted while writing your paper. Every book, article, and even video you used to gather information for your paper needs to be cited in your bibliography so your instructor (and any others reading your work) can trace the facts, statistics, and insights back to their original sources.

What is the purpose of a bibliography?

A bibliography is the list of sources a work’s author used to create the work. It accompanies just about every type of academic writing , like essays , research papers , and reports . You might also find a brief, less formal bibliography at the end of a journalistic piece, presentation, or video when the author feels it’s necessary to cite their sources. In nearly all academic instances, a bibliography is required. Not including a bibliography (or including an incomplete, incorrect, or falsified bibliography) can be considered an act of plagiarism , which can lead to a failing grade, being dropped from your course or program, and even being suspended or expelled from your school.

A bibliography accomplishes a few things. These include:

  • Showing your instructor that you conducted the necessary research for your assignment
  • Crediting your sources’ authors for the research they conducted
  • Making it easy for anybody who reads your work to find the sources you used and conduct their own research on the same or a similar topic

Additionally, future historians consulting your writing can use your bibliography to identify primary and secondary sources in your research field. Documenting the course information from its original source through later academic works can help researchers understand how that information has been cited and interpreted over time. It can also help them review the information in the face of competing—and possibly contradictory or revisionary—data.

In nearly all cases, a bibliography is found at the end of a book or paper.

What are the different kinds of bibliographies?

Different types of academic works call for different types of bibliographies. For example, your computer science professor might require you to submit an annotated bibliography along with your paper because this type of bibliography explains the why behind each source you chose to consult.

Analytical bibliography

An analytical bibliography documents a work’s journey from manuscript to published book or article. This type of bibliography includes the physical characteristics of each cited source, like each work’s number of pages, type of binding used, and illustrations.

Annotated bibliography

An annotated bibliography is a bibliography that includes annotations, which are short notes explaining why the author chose each of the sources. Generally a few sentences long, these notes might summarize or reflect on the source.

An annotated bibliography is not the same as a literature review . While a literature review discusses how you conducted your research and how your work fits into the overall body of established research in your field, an annotated bibliography simply explains how each source you used is relevant to your work.

Enumerative bibliography

An enumerative bibliography is the most basic type of bibliography. It’s a list of sources used to conduct research, often ordered according to specific characteristics, like alphabetically by authors’ last names or grouped according to topic or language.

Specific types of enumerative bibliographies used for research works include:

National bibliography

A national bibliography groups sources published in a specific region or nation. In many cases, these bibliographies also group works according to the time period during which they were published.

Personal bibliography

A personal bibliography lists multiple works by the same individual author or group of authors. Often, personal bibliographies include works that would be difficult to find elsewhere, like unpublished works.

Corporate bibliography

In a corporate bibliography, the sources are grouped according to their relation to a specific organization. The sources can be about an organization, published by that organization, or owned by that organization.

Subject bibliography

Subject bibliographies group works according to the subjects they cover. Generally, these bibliographies list primary and secondary sources, whereas other types of enumerative bibliographies, like personal bibliographies, might not.

Other types of bibliographies

In some cases, it makes sense to use a bibliography format other than those listed here. These include:

Single-author bibliography

This type of bibliography lists works by a single author. With certain assignments, like an essay comparing two of an author’s books, your bibliography is a single-author bibliography by default. In this case, you can choose how to order the sources, such as by publication date or alphabetically by title.

Selected bibliography

A selected bibliography is a bibliography that only lists some of the sources you consulted. Usually, these are the most important sources for your work. You might write a selected bibliography if you consulted a variety of minor sources that you didn’t end up citing directly in your work. A selected bibliography may also be an annotated bibliography.

How is a bibliography structured?

Although each style guide has its own formatting rules for bibliographies, all bibliographies follow a similar structure. Key points to keep in mind when you’re structuring a bibliography include:

  • Every bibliography page has a header. Format this header according to the style guide you’re using.
  • Every bibliography has a title, such as “Works Cited,” “References,” or simply “Bibliography.”
  • Bibliographies are lists. List your sources alphabetically according to their authors’ last names or their titles—whichever is applicable according to the style guide you’re using. The exception is a single-author bibliography or one that groups sources according to a shared characteristic.
  • Bibliographies are double-spaced.
  • Bibliographies should be in legible fonts, typically the same font as the papers they accompany.

As noted above, different kinds of assignments require different kinds of bibliographies. For example, you might write an analytical bibliography for your art history paper because this type of bibliography gives you space to discuss how the construction methods used for your sources inform their content and vice-versa. If you aren’t sure which kind of bibliography to write, ask your instructor.

How do you write a bibliography?

The term “bibliography” is a catch-all for any list of sources cited at the end of an academic work. Certain style guides use different terminology to refer to bibliographies. For example, MLA format refers to a paper’s bibliography as its Works Cited page. APA refers to it as the References page. No matter which style guide you’re using, the process for writing a bibliography is generally the same. The primary difference between the different style guides is how the bibliography is formatted.

The first step in writing a bibliography is organizing all the relevant information about the sources you used in your research. Relevant information about a source can vary according to the type of media it is, the type of bibliography you’re writing, and your style guide. Determine which information you need to include about each source by consulting the style guide you’re using. If you aren’t sure what to include, or if you’re not sure which style guide to use, ask your instructor.

The next step is to format your sources according to the style guide you’re using. MLA , APA , and the Chicago Manual of Style are three of the most commonly used style guides in academic writing.

MLA Works Cited page

In MLA format , the bibliography is known as the Works Cited page. MLA is typically used for writing in the humanities, like English and History. Because of this, it includes guidelines for citing sources like plays, videos, and works of visual art—sources you’d find yourself consulting for these courses, but probably not in your science and business courses.

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In MLA format, books are cited like this:

    Last Name, First Name. Title of Book . City of Publication, Publisher, Publication

If the cited book was published prior to 1900, is from a publisher with offices in multiple countries, or is from a publisher that is largely unknown in the US, include the book’s city of publication. Otherwise, this can be left out.

Scholarly articles are cited in this format:

  • Author(s). “Title of Article.” Title of Periodical, Day Month Year, pages.

APA References page

In APA format —the format typically used in psychology, nursing, business, and the social sciences—the bibliography page is titled References. This format includes citation instructions for technical papers and data-heavy research, the types of sources you’re likely to consult for academic writing in these fields.

In APA format, books are cited like this:

    Last name, First initial. (Year of publication). Title of work. Publisher Name.

Digital object identifier (DOI).

Scholarly articles are cited in this format:

    Authors. (Year published). Title of article. Title of Periodical , volume number

(issue number), article’s page range (i.e., 10-15). URL.

Chicago Manual of Style

The Chicago Manual of Style (CMoS) permits authors to format bibliographies in two different ways: the notes and bibliography system and the author-date system. The former is generally used in the humanities, whereas the latter is usually used in the sciences and social sciences.

Both systems include guidelines for citations on a paper’s body pages as well as a bibliographic list that follows the paper. This list is titled Bibliography.

In CMoS, books are cited like this:

    Last name, First name. Title of Book . Place of publication: Publisher, Year of

Scholarly articles are cited in this format:

    Last name, First name. “Article Title.” Journal Title volume number 58, no. issue

number (year published): page numbers of the article (i.e., 10-15).

Bibliography FAQs

What is a bibliography?

A bibliography is the list of sources a work’s author used to create the work.

What are the different kinds of bibliographies?

There are many different kinds of bibliographies. These include:

  • Enumerative bibliographies
  • Annotated bibliographies
  • Analytical bibliographies

How do you write a bibliography for different style guides?

Each style guide publishes its bibliography guidelines online. Locate the guidelines for the style guide you’re following ( Chicago Manual of Style , MLA , APA), and using the examples provided, format and list the sources for your work.

How to Start Your Own Scuba Diving Business

Come rain or the high waters, people will always love outdoor activities. But, when is the best time to enjoy outdoor activities? Of course, wait for it… summer is when most outdoor activities are more appealing, save for ice skating and other snow-friendly moments. But if there’s one thing that goes well with the warmer months, you can call it water sports!

From an entrepreneurial perspective, scuba diving is one of the things to consider when fishing for ideas to start a business based on water sports activities. People from all walks of life love it for the many benefits it provides. While getting exposed to paradisiacal parts of the universe, one gets to have fun, relieve stress, and improve their emotional wellness. The activity is good for the mind, body, and spirit. But as an entrepreneur, you know all too well that take-off is among the worst nightmares as far as success is concerned. This is before you even start dealing with competition and other challenges to do with inventory and stuff. Whether you’re just a curious investor or you’ve been employed in the recreation industry before, here are some tips you may find helpful in starting a scuba diving business.

1. Decide On a Business Model

It goes without saying, the main idea of starting any business is to make profits. But before you come to the part where you make profits, how will your scuba diving business earn revenue in the first place? Well, diving businesses have various ways to earn income. Some provide a full package to their clients, whereas others focus on one or two areas. For instance, you can charge customers for diving classes or dive guide services. Many startups also specialize in renting scuba diving equipment like diving masks, snorkels, water cams, regulators, diving suits, scuba tanks, and other essentials.

2. Know What Equipment to Get, and Where

Regardless of the model you choose, you will always need scuba diving equipment. This could be for renting or for customers who come without their own. After all, the word scuba refers to Self Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus, meaning that there’s no scuba diving without the equipment! To make your business more profitable, you will want to do some research and determine the best suppliers of this equipment. As explained by the experts behind , gas, and gas tanks are more affordable and convenient when acquired directly from the manufacturer. Moreover, there’s always room to become a distributor of diving gas and other equipment.

3. Scale the Capital and Costs

Starting a scuba diving business will cost you quite a fortune. However, you may need less starting and operating capital if you are smart enough in market research and planning for your business. In this case, you need to think about the expenses that you will incur upfront and regularly. While you can purchase a few boats at the point of start-up, don’t forget that these boats will also need fuel and regular maintenance. You will also need a few employees working under you, and from time to time, new equipment will have to be rented or existing ones replaced. Training materials may also be required from time-to-time. Financial sustainability is the biggest secret to the survival of any business.

4. Choose a Name, Register, and Insure Your Business

In a scuba diving business, you will literally have the lives of your target market in your hands. Scratch that, customers want to deal with a company they can fully trust as far as scuba diving is concerned. In this case, you will want to choose an appealing name for your business and check with the local authorities for the kinds of documentation needed. Obviously, you will also need business insurance, just in case you wound up with an unmanageable customer.

When you make your business a legal entity (LLC), you also separate yourself from lawsuits that could hit your business in the future. Also, remember to open a business bank account where the generated income from the business will be going. Before fully launching, ensure you have the right registration. Once you start getting a good reputation, it will be easier to keep your customers happy and coming back.

5. Start Marketing

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Finally, nothing beats the opportunity to share moments having fun in the water. These moments and memories are best preserved when people take photos and post them on various social media channels. Your IG or Facebook account can also double up as a marketing tool. Also, ensure you have a website for your business before or shortly after taking off. Investing in various marketing channels will help elevate your business to greater heights.

The success of your business will largely depend on whether you can recruit customers and keep them coming back. It’s all about staying competitive and making your customers feel they are getting value for their money. With these tips in mind, getting started in scuba diving as an entrepreneur shouldn’t be so hard.

Business Plan: Aqua Diving Inc. – Part 7

Scuba diving has transformed into becoming one of the most sought after marine recreation sport and also the fastest growing sports activity. Scuba Diving is best classified as a subcategory of sports tourism. Around the mid- twentieth century or so, scuba diving was an activity which the military forces alone pursued and also a few specialised people who did it for the sake of spear fishing and treasure raiding. Today, there are many millions of people globally, who are qualified divers and take part in diving on a regular basis.

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Have no literary sources to comply with the APA formatting style requirements, and to write in APA article review format? Keep calm, and read our blog about article review writing attentively, and you’ll be fine.

Typically, divers were noted to be people with good educational background, financial security, and also mostly males. Most of the divers are single. However, this trend of single men pursuing diving is slowly changing, as more and more couples who are showing more interest in diving these days and moreover, it was also noted that such couples coming for diving come from a combined household income of more than 40, 000 pounds. There has not been much change in the age and gender profile of divers, at least in the recent past, despite there being growing number of female divers showing interest in this sport.

In case of divers at PADI, the split between male and female divers is roughly 65% and 35% respectively and the highest age range is between 25 – 29 years of age bracket. According to research done by Sport Diver, it was confirmed by readers that the statistic with 34% of their readers between the age group of 25 and 34 followed by another large group of readers (34%) who were aged between 35 and 44. The sex of the readers is also similar, with 76% male and 24% female. Elderly people are also showing increased interest in this sport off late. This growing interest that is being shown by elderly people is largely because of the radical developments and improvements in the diving equipment and technology advancement. Reports indicate that close to 10% of elderly people constitutes the adventure tourism segment today.

Scuba diving is essentially an all year round sporting activity and this activity takes place in many global destinations. A few prominent global locations where scuba diving takes place are Fuji, The Red Sea, Bahamas, Hawaii, Caribbean, The Great Barrier Reef, US Virgin Islands, Caymans, Jamaica, Cape Town, British Virgin Islands, Tanzania, and Thailand among others. In countries like Dubai, there are artificial reefs that have been created in order to stimulate a few of these renowned dive locations, thereby enabling tourists to dive directly from their hotel beaches.

Aqua Diving Inc. plans to exploit the nature of the diving business to the fullest to deliver the highest possible shareholder value to all its shareholders. One of the important aspects to run a successful business enterprise is to ensure constant flow of revenues and operational breakeven at the earliest possible after the inception of business. Founder members of any organization try to achieve this at the earliest. The easiest way is to achieve this is to spread as wide as possible and target larger segments of target population and this is the essential point of Aqua Diving Inc. business plan.

Scuba Diving is even done in less significant locations like rivers, caves, and lakes, among others. For divers of UK, approximately 85% of them tend to dive out of the country, according to the research done by Sports Diver’s magazine among their readers. PADI is the principal diving establishment and about 4700 dive centres and resorts are spread across 175 different nations and this indicates the existence of numerous and diverse dive locations for divers globally.

For most divers, there are a few features which are of more interest and the ones they keenly would like to explore. A few among such interests include wreckages of sunken “ships, coral reefs, caves, ‘walls’, ‘blue holes’, ‘sleeping sharks’ and marine life (Smith, May, 2005).” For divers with more experience, these features and specific categories of dives are, time and again, of specific interest and they travel extensively to discover and explore such special and specific sights and in the process, use specific techniques of diving.

From a survey that was conducted among 1628 readers of the Sports Diver magazine, it was discovered that approximately 73% showed special interest in environmental issues while just 25% among them got involved in any sort of ecological initiatives and merely 20% were members of any particular environmental organisation (Smith, May, 2005). Nitrox-Diving and Wreck-diving are most popular among the divers who are PADI qualified, like in the case of technical diving. Yet, all these forms of diving are categorized as niche activities, when compared to mainstream diving. The most attracting thing for divers would be dive locations like the Great Barrier Reef that has unique features, or renowned and well-preserved wreckage when compared to other normal dive locations. Also, companies can put up a hefty price tag, if they can take the divers to such locations. Typically, divers happily spend anywhere between 500 to 2500 pounds on diving holidays and the more keener lot do not hesitate to spend even 3500 pounds on a few specific diving holidays.

Brand analysis

Consumers identify a brand’s distinctive capabilities based on their perceptions that have themselves been created by the marketers over a period of time. A genuine brand is “the internalized sum of all the impressions received by the customers and consumers resulting in a distinctive position in their mind’s eye based on perceived emotional and functional benefits” (Knapp, 1998).

A brand, in general, conveys certain aspects like attributes, benefits, values, culture, personality and user each one of which are discussed below.

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  • Attributes: Attributes are things that usually speak about the product. A brand usually conveys attributes of the product in order to inform existing customers and at the same time attract new potential customers. If this aspect is compared with Duchess, the brand that is being discussed in this paper, the attributes of Duchess Products’ are stylish, fashionable and modern and are made of high quality premium leather.
  • Benefits: In order for a brand to be successful in the market, it is necessary that the product attributes eventually transform into both emotional and functional benefits of the same. If the same example of Duchess which was mentioned above is considered attributes like style and fashion will transform into emotional benefits and the quality of clothing will transform into functional benefits. The later one is referred to as functional benefit because the consumer may not have to spend frequently on buying travel accessories or goods.
  • Values: Most of the brands associate some value with themselves. For example, the exclusive store on the Kings Road of the brand Duchess, communicates a value proposition that the luxury goods manufactured by the company are especially clutch bag patterns.
  • Culture: Brands also represent a certain culture. Even this aspect can be better explained with the same example of Duchess that we’ve been discussing all through. Duchess projects a culture of traditionalism in its advertisements.
  • Personality: Brands communicate personality status. Duchess suggests that it is a brand for people who care for the society and themselves.

User: Brands clearly state their user segments. Duchess is targeted at upper middle class and upper class customers.

Brand Personality

Brand Personality can be defined as the immediate “take-away” or response that people have to a brand (Knapp, 1998). Value has been recognized as “the fundamental basis for all marketing activity (Halbrook, 1994)”. Value has also been stated as “a cognitive-based construct which captures any benefit-sacrifice discrepancy in much the same way disconfirmation does for variations between expectations and perceived performance (Spreng, 1997)”. Therefore, it is the outcome of a cognitive assessment procedure. Moreover, it is an affective evaluative reaction.

Customer perceived value in commerce marketplace was defined as “the trade-off between the multiple benefits and sacrifices of a supplier’s offering, as perceived by key decision-makers in the customer’s organization, and taking into consideration the available alternative suppliers’ offerings in a specific use situation” (Ulaga, 2002). That is, there existed three elements in this definition: “(1) the multiple components of value, (2) the subjectivity of value perceptions and (3) the importance of competition (Ulaga, 2002)”.

Brand Pyramid

The concept of a brand can be thought of as a pyramid consisting of different layers of meaning and involvement (, 2000).

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At its lowest level a brand is simply an identifying mark to distinguish the product from alternatives. Normally, at this simple level, there is an implicit statement of specification. This, if related to the boutique, relating to product legacy and quality, the Tradition section allows the viewer to witness step-by-step video demonstrations of the construction of its equipment and travel gear, complete with a link to an area where the buyer can order customized bags.

At the next level, the brand becomes more than a mark of specification; it becomes a mark of assurance (, 2000). The sportswear of boutique is perceived to be highly successful and prestigious. At the next step, the brand provides a mark of association, a badge of a club that the individual wants to be associated with (, 2000). Aqua Diving Sports Boutique is a brand that is famous for its Sports gear and wear. If customers increase the association with the brand to a next level, it becomes a point of emotional involvement (, 2000).

Principles of marketing

The 4Ps are essentially called as the Marketing Mix. They form an integral part of marketing principles because they are in fact, the controlling variables of the business (Merrihue, 2004). The Marketing Mix is a tool that helps the organization to design a package. The Marketing Mix, apart from just fulfilling the requirements of the customers, also additionally maximizes the performance of the company. The 4Ps are also used to describe the marketing strategy. The 4 variables of the Marketing Mix are the Product, Price, Place and Promotion, which are collectively utilized in an optimal way in order to spawn the best possible response in the target market segments (NetMBA, 2002). The variables of the marketing mix can be changed regularly in order to meet the ever-changing needs of the customer of the target market and numerous other factors of the marketing atmosphere.


This principle may be related to the different products or product lines and/or services. The strategy involved in this principle of marketing is that for the success of any kind of product or a service, the firm offering the product or service should ensure that there is a clear and distinct value to the buyer of the product or service. The factors which judge the success of the product or service are the demand and supply. As already stated, the Aqua Diving Sports Shop store would host a wide variety of sports gear and wear from various luxury brands in the industry.


This particular aspect of the marketing mix is related to the channels of distribution. The strategy involved here is very simple. Create as much awareness as possible about the new products. The only way to do this is to develop healthy relations with the channels of distribution. Unless and until the customers are aware of the existence of the product, there is no possibility of them buying the same. As far as the Shop is concerned, the store is an exclusive store for Sportswear and gear.


The setting up of price for a particular product depends of the value addition to the product and also the innovation involved. Prices are something which explains the degree of innovation in the product. The Shop is a premium store of sportswear and gear aimed at a selected class of customers who have a passion to sportswear.


Promotion means making the product reach the customer or simply communicating the product or service to the customer. The strategy involved here is to make use of the media to the maximum in order to reach the customers and tell them about the product. A variety of promotional tools have been used and the same have been discussed in details in the later parts of this paper.

Environmental analysis

The three major benefits of conducting an external analysis are:

  1. It helps in determining the opportunities and threats that are supposedly faced by the organization in the market place.
  2. It helps in assessing the current situation of the organization in view of the strategic management perspective.
  3. Helps in framing new strategies or modifying the current strategies of the organization in line with the external environment in order to obtain competitive advantage (Armstrong P. K., 2010).

The external environment consists of many factors that govern the product’s sale. These factors are uncontrollable by nature. Some of the factors such as competition and political, economic, legal, government rules and regulations, etc. influence the firm’s choice of direction and action and also affect the internal environment of the organization. The major challenges that are faced when conducting an external analysis are that the socio-cultural, technological and legal factors and finally the competition in the market do not remain the same and hence the analysis should be conducted on a timely and well-planned manner in order achieve better strategic advantages. In the present competitive scenario, environmental stability is not guaranteed and this becomes a major challenge for organizations while carrying out external analysis as changes in the environment are rapidly taking place in the environment due to various usually uncontrollable factors. Every firm should ponder these factors and formulate its strategies through effective planning. However, the company has to face many constraints imposed by the government and other legal bodies. Effective environment planning is therefore a difficult task for organizations.

The two perspectives of external environment analysis are 1) the environment as a source of information, & 2) the environment as a source of resource (Gerry Jhonson, 2008). When the environment is viewed as a source of information, it can be stated that the amount of uncertainty differs among various environments and if the same is reduced, it serves as a means of obtaining information. In the same way, when the environment is viewed as a source of resource either scarce or valued resources, it leads to organizations depending on the environment to make use of these resources and the same are sought by various competing organizations (Baylis, 2007). There are basically two types of environment in which a firm operates in – they are the remote environment and the other is the planning environment. The former consists of a set of forces that originate beyond a firm’s operating situation and comprise political, economic, social, technological and industrial forces which create a plethora of opportunities upon which a firm can cash in upon. In the same way, the latter consists of customers, creditors, suppliers, labor markets and competitors.

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Macro-economic Analysis

As the world rises again from the ashes of the latest economic crisis, people have learned to safeguard themselves from going through traumatic experience again by adopting various economic safety measures. But sports especially in the upper echelons of the society remains as it is and the need was not observed to be tapering even during the worst of times. What is interesting is that the best of brands targeting the upper class, offering more than the average type of products, specifically the luxury and the premium range did not actually suffer much. This observation is interesting especially for the Sports shop that offers the best scuba diving gear.

An analysis of the unemployment rates indicates that they have stabilized and are bound to look southward in the next three quarters starting January 2010. With higher rate of employment which indirectly translates to higher income levels and higher disposable incomes, people are likely to look at acquiring assets that will stand them good in long and higher social stead. High among the list would be personal and sports accessories.

All the macroeconomic factors point to a higher stimulus for growth in sports segment of society and living.




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