How is current volcanic eruptions affecting scuba diving in hawaii

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Volcanic hazards on the Island of Hawaii



Volcanic hazards on the Island of Hawaii have been determined to be chiefly products of eruptions: lava flows, falling fragments, gases, and particle-and-gas clouds. Falling fragments and particle-and-gas clouds can be substantial hazards to life, but they are relatively rare. Lava flows are the chief hazard to property; they are frequent and cover broad areas. Rupture, subsidence, earthquakes, and sea waves (tsunamis) caused by eruptions are minor hazards; those same events caused by large-scale crustal movements, however, are major hazards to both life and property. Volcanic hazards are greatest on Mauna Loa and Kilauea, and the risk is highest along the rift zones of those volcanoes. The hazards are progressively less severe on Hualalai, Mauna Kea, and Kohala volcanoes. Some risk from earthquakes extends across the entire island, and the risk from tsunamis is high all along the coast. The island has been divided into geographic zones of different relative risk for each volcanic hazard, and for all those hazards combined. Each zone is assigned a relative risk for that area as a whole; the degree of risk varies within the zones, however, and in some of them the risk decreases gradationally across the entire zone. Moreover, the risk in one zone may be locally as great or greater than that at some points in the zone of next higher overall risk. Nevertheless, the zones can be highly useful for land-use planning. Planning decisions to which the report is particularly applicable include the selection of kinds of structures and kinds of land use that are appropriate for the severity and types of hazards present. For example, construction of buildings that can resist a lava flow is generally not feasible, but it is both feasible and desirable to build structures that can resist falling rock fragments, earthquakes, and tsunamis in areas where risk from those hazards is relatively high. The report can also be used to select sites where overall risk is relatively low, to identify sites where either overall risk or risk from some specific hazard is relatively high, and to identify areas in which there is a threat to lives as well as to property. The report further can serve as a basis for warning persons about hazards in areas most likely to be affected by volcanic eruptions. Perhaps most important, however, the report provides basic information needed for zoning to control future land use.

Study Area

Additional publication details

Publication typeReport
Publication SubtypeUSGS Numbered Series
TitleVolcanic hazards on the Island of Hawaii
Series titleOpen-File Report
Series number74-239
Year Published1974
PublisherU.S. Geological Survey
DescriptionReport: ii, 61 p.; 2 Plates: 45.44 x 27.41 inches and 45.52 x 36.01 inches
CountryUnited States
Google Analytic MetricsMetrics page

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Diving Into a Volcano Crater in Molokini, Hawaii

Hawaii is famous for its challenging surf spots, mesmerising volcanoes, and relaxing jungle waterfalls, but as a scuba diver, there is even more to experience. Beyond for the world-class night dive with manta rays, the islands of Hawaii also offer some intriguing volcanic dive experiences like lava tubes and even diving into a volcano crater.

Maui was my favourite island of my 3-week trip to Hawaii. When visiting Maui Island, don’t miss the opportunity to go diving into the crater of Molokini Volcano.

I know, diving inside a volcano near some of the most active volcanic islands on the planet sounds like a crazy idea. But, no worries, the half-submerged Molokini Volcano last erupted 230,000 years ago.

Diving into a volcano crater

Today, the emerged part of Molokini forms a 9.3 ha crescent-shaped island. Since 1977, it has become a protected nature reserve, both for birds and marine life. However, scuba divers can enjoy a much wider playground. Molokini offers 8 different dive sites that accommodate all levels of scuba diver.

Open water divers

Will enjoy the shallowest part of the inner reef with the sites named “Tako Flats” famous for its octopus and “Enenue” which displays a beautiful antler hard coral reef where the red dotted coral crabs love to hide. In both cases, you will be able to remain within the 18 m depth limit with little to no current.

Advanced divers

Will especially appreciate the dive site called “Middle Reef” with a max depth of 30 m (98 ft). This is where you get the best experience of diving inside the crater. The visibility is usually between 40-50 m (131-164 ft) and you can see up to 250 species of tropical fish, some being endemic to Molokini. The marine life highlights of my dive there were the blue trevally, the raccoon and pyramid butterflyfish, the yellow tang, the flame angelfish and the fire goby.

If you are an experienced drift and deep diver

The greatest fun for you will be outside the crater, along its back wall. The visibility drops to 20-30 m (66-98 ft) but still, it is more than enough to realise how impressive the 110 m (360 ft) wall is. Beyond a challenging dive including currents and waves at the surface, this is where you have the greatest chance of pelagic encounters, including whale sharks. Whilst I didn’t encounter any pelagic’s, I saw the largest concentration of longfin bannerfish and red pencil urchins. In the winter (November to March) you also have great chances to scuba dive while hearing whales singing.

Molokini Volcano

Useful information

I was staying in Kihei, which is only a 15 minute boat ride to Molokini, and a 45 minute cross over on the large scuba diving boats, which leave from Maalaea Harbour. It did mean an early wake-up time since the boat leaves around 7 o’clock to avoid the swell coming at around 10 o’clock. I used the services of Maui Dreams Dive Co in Kihei, but if you stay in Lahaina (which was my favourite place to stay on Maui) it is good to know that Lahaina Divers also go there directly from their harbour 3 times a week.

Maui - Diving a volcano crater

The dive trip remains one of my best diving memories so far. And they also offer snorkelling excursions, giving you the opportunity to see both inside the crater and the back wall.

Inspired to dive in Hawaii? Search for PADI dive shops online here.

Florine is a PADI Divemaster and a Dive Travel blogger at World Adventure Divers. She dives in tropical to extreme cold waters, selecting her destinations when both adventure diving and cultural discoveries are part of the journey, and showing you how to do it without breaking the bank.

Scuba Diving in Hawaii: Paradise on Earth

Bubbling volcanoes, black sand beaches, entrancing hula dancers, and magnificent waves: Sound familiar? Indeed, Hawaii is as famous as it is beautiful, with its spectacular scenery and laid back lifestyle. Leafy green cliffs cascade down into frothing white water, and comfortable breezes blow across the breathtaking beaches. Scuba diving in Hawaii is as popular here as surfing, and there’s more than enough dive sites to sink your teeth into. Check it out!


Hawaii is a place unlike any in the world. As a piece of the United States, it adds an extra element of intrigue, a blending of cultures and mindsets. Hawaii became a state in 1959, and is the 50th, most recent addition. Found far out in Oceania, scuba diving in Hawaii is unlike any other state, with tropical and warm throughout the year.

With around 750 miles (1,210 kilometers) of coastline, Hawaii is a huge tourist destination, bringing travelers from around the world. But beaches aren’t all that this archipelago has to offer. Some of the most fantastic volcanoes in the world can be found here, pumping out lava at tremendous rates. Some flows make their way to the sea, sputtering and hissing as it drops into the waves.

This unreal amount of volcanic activity is what formed these islands to begin with, from the soaring cliffs to the fertile jungled hills. This abundant landscape offers you new sights and sounds, tastes and sensations, both above the water and below. Let’s take a look at the dives you can expect in each island of this beautiful state.

Scuba Diving in Hawaii, By Island

Hawaiian marine life - Scuba diving in Hawaii


Kaua’i is the oldest of the Hawaiian Islands, geologically speaking. It is known as the “Garden Isle,” covered in lush greenery. The fertile landscape is home to an abundance of farmland and animal life, including plenty of wild chickens, who can be seen and heard all over the island.

If you crave some sea turtle sightings, Kaua’i is your place. Some of the best dives on the island can be found off its southern shore. Swim in a collapsed lava tube with hundreds of green sea turtles in Sheraton Caverns, or find even more of your flippered friends at Turtle Bluffs. The Bluffs are a cleaning station for turtles, and you can even spot some fairly large reef sharks in the shallows. There are even more turtles at Tunnels Beach, where they glide between mysterious lava formations.

On the western side of the island, the little known Mana Crack is a lovely spot to add to your log book. You can soar down to depths near 95 feet (29 meters). Another deep dive is Ahukini Landing, on the eastern side of the island.

For shore diving, don’t miss out on Koloa Landing, where the fantastically colored Dragon Moray eel can be found. This eel comes in a variety of hues, bright and white spotted, and its two unique horn are what gives it its name.

You can fly onto the island into the Lihue Airport, then get around the island by a series of interconnecting highways. Be sure to take the Holo Holo Koloa Scenic Byway, which will take you through some of the most remarkable features on Kaua’i.

scuba diving in Hawaii


Known as the “Friendly Island,” Moloka’i is found in the middle of the Hawaiian archipelago. From here you can get lovely views of many of the other islands, and you can even see the twinkling lights of Honolulu on still, clear nights. The island itself is made up of two massive volcanoes, and the highest sea cliffs in the world can be found on these shores.

What’s more, the longest fringing reef in the United States, and at nearly 25 miles (40 kilometers) long, you’ll want to explore every bit of it. Because it is relatively difficult to get to the island, you may find that you have the reef almost entirely to yourself. There are rare, endangered sea life in these waters, and photographic opportunities abound.

One of the most popular sites on Moloka’i is Fish Bowl, where you might even run across an occasional Hawaiian Monk Seal, a rare treat. In deeper water, hammerhead sharks are not uncommon, sometimes making their way in huge schools.

You can only get to Moloka’i through domestic flights from Maui or Honolulu. You can also get from Maui to Moloka’i via ferry; a lovely ride. Once on the island, there is only one main highway, meandering along the length, from tip to tip. The mile markers on the road are used as reference points, so be sure to take note when you pass one of the helpful green signs.

dolphins in Hawaii


Small Lana’i is off the beaten path, and is a quiet, off the grid destination. Long ago, native Hawaiians regarded Lana’i with deep reverence, believing it to be a place inhabited by dark spirits. Only more recently have people been frequenting the island on vacations, and there are several hotels and golf courses.

Cavern divers, start your engines! Lana’i offers exceptionally clear water and an abundance of caves. Two of the best caverns to check out are Cathedrals I and II, both of which are splendid, and deserve a dive or two. If you come during the winter, you will probably see humpback whales, and may even get a chance to dive with these ethereal animals.

There’s more than just caves on Lana’i, however. Shore dive in Manele Bay, where plenty of rays and reef fish coalesce. Fish Rock is another great shore dive, but you can also take a boat there, if you just can’t kick anymore.

You cannot fly to straight to Lana’i, but must take a flight from either Honolulu or Maui. If you prefer, you can take an hour long ferry ride, leaving from Maui. Once on the island, you can either take the transit offered by the hotels, or rent a four wheel drive vehicle and take to the roads yourself, exploring the unique nature on your own terms.


The island for which the great state is named, Hawai’i is the largest of the Hawaiian isles. Known colloquially as the “Big Island,” Hawai’i is made up of five volcanoes: Kohala, Mauna Kea, Hualalai, Mauna Loa, and Kilauea. Both Mauna Loa and Kilauea are found within the astounding Hawai’i Volcanoes National Park. The mighty Kilauea has been constantly erupting for more than 20 years.

There are dozens upon dozens of dive sites scattered around the perimeter of Hawai’i. Explore bizarre underwater lava formations, or watch curious turtles munching on sea grasses. The most famous dive on the island is the unforgettable Kona manta ray dive. Kneeling on the sandy sea floor, hundreds of tremendous rays skate above your head. This dive is not to be missed.

If you want to shore dive, don’t miss out on Kamakahonu Beach, and the excellent Honokohau Harbor. Night diving is a heart-pounding experience, no matter where you find yourself. Often, large creatures make their way upward from the black depths, surprising you during their swift ascent.

Highways crisscross the expanse of the island, interconnecting the main towns of Hilo and Kailua-Kona. You can fly into either one of these towns. There are rental cars and taxis to take you where you need to go, as well as a notoriously slow bus route that makes its way around the perimeter of the island.


Oahu is the most populous (and popular) of the Hawaiian Islands. The capital city of Honolulu can be found here, a booming metropolis, so starkly contrasting to the uninhabited jungles of other islands. You can expect plenty of both rain and sun during your stay, with plenty of rainbows, besides. The beaches here are some of the most famous in the world, with Waikiki Beach taking the cake, an undeniably gorgeous stretch of sand and sea.

Head to O’ahu for stellar wreck dives. The San Pedro and YO-257 can both be experienced on the same dive. To add to the excitement, a passenger submarine often comes to check out the wrecks, and you can make some silly faces back and forth with the people riding within.

Shore diving is the name of the game on O’ahu, where you can experience wrecks, caverns, and fantastic reefs. During the summer, the waves subside, and the North Shore becomes available. Don’t miss out on Shark’s Cove, an aptly named dive where you can run into an array of impressive species, including the massive tiger shark.

To add to the diversity of dives, see the fantastic walls like Waimea and Wailalua. Both require a boat to access, but on Hawaii there are plenty of vessels to choose from.

Check out some of the lovely islands that dot the shoreline, from Waikiki to tiny Manana Rabbit Island. You can find a wide diversity of creatures and formations beneath the water at these excellent sites.
As far as on land attractions go, the beautiful Valley of the Temples Memorial Park is not to be missed, found on the eastern side of the island. The memorial of Pearl Harbor is also found on Oahu, and you can tour the USS Arizona Memorial during your stay.

You will probably fly into Honolulu, where the large international airport is found. Honolulu is a gateway to the other islands, and you can catch flights to all of the smaller islands from this hub. The southern shore of the island is highly populated, but the northern shore is much less so.


Marvelous Maui is a favorite with visitors, with its diverse landscape and stunning beaches. The island was formed by two volcanoes, whose virulent lava flows connected to form an isthmus. Kahului is the largest city on the island, and is found at the juncture of the two volcanoes.

The icon of Maui is Haleakala. The massive, inactive Haleakala volcano is 5 miles (8 kilometers) from the summit to the seafloor, stretching 10,000 feet (3,000 meters) above sea level. Clouds shroud the mountain for most of the year, dumping down an incredible amount of rain. At the highest elevation, temperatures below freezing are not uncommon, and this alpine environment provides a shocking contrast to the hot, humid jungle below.

Dragon Reef is an exceptional dive on the south western shore of the island. You can reach the reef by boat, and depths range from 25-70 feet (7-21 meters). One of the most popular dives is Black Rock, where eagle rays and turtles idle. There are also several wrecks worth your time, especially the Carthaginian.

Offshore is horseshoe shaped Molokini, an extinct volcano with unreal sites. Diving the Molokini crater is an unexpected and lovely experience, where some of the most pristine, clear waters in Hawaii can be explored. Plenty of sharks flock here, and there are several places where you can swim with a variety of species, even hammerheads. Plus, the drift diving here is some of the best in the world, especially along the back side of the crater.

Be sure to see the humpback whales during their annual migration. They can be seen through the end of April, but are most common in the winter, where they breed and give birth to their young in the warm waters.

Maui is most easily visited via airline, either from an international destination or from another of the islands. Once on the island, rent a car or take a taxi to get around the island. If renting a car, a four wheel drive vehicle is highly recommended, especially if you are heading out on far flung treks. Maui is a great setting off point, too, and the Maui ferry can take you to plenty of the other less visited islands in the archipelago.

Scuba diving in Hawaii – Which island will you visit first?

Scuba diving in Hawaii has a little something for every type of diver. Whether you prefer serene, shallow dives, or adrenaline pumping drift dives, Hawaii has you covered. With so much diversity found in such a relatively small space, there is plenty to explore, so hop from island to island, getting a taste of all that legendary Hawaii has to offer.

Browse all the available dive resorts, liveaboards and day trips on PADI Travel.

This blog was originally written by Bridget Pearson and published on the Diviac Magazine.




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