The Best Historical Places To Visit In Ethiopia – Discover The Mother Of All African Countries

I think you are interested in African countries, But you are failing to decide which country you should travel to first! Okay, we are going to tell you about historical places to visit in Ethiopia. Undoubtedly, Ethiopia is one of Africa’s most beautiful and fascinating countries. with this it is a surprising trip destination for every traveler.

From spectacular mountain geographies and public premises to vast lakes, mysterious comeuppance, and beautiful nature. From inconceivable wildlife to interesting major milestones. From vibrant, fast-growing metropolises to small townlets and ethnical regions, steeped in culture and traditions. In this small article, I’ll show you 10 beautiful places in Ethiopia.

I remember the grins and drinking station of the people, the inconceivable food, the remarkable monuments, and the stunning natural and civic geographies. In all fairness, this was one of my stylish peregrinations yet. Sorely, still, at the time of writing this article, Ethiopia is in political and military conflict with the Northern Tigray region, which is causing great suffering to ordinary civilians.

Like utmost people, I hope the applicable authorities can come to an agreement soon and start rebuilding this beautiful land, and We hope that world peace will be restored. As a result of the conflict, some of the places in this article that we recommended are presently inapproachable due to high-security enterprises. Always follow trip advice and consult original attendants, to avoid putting yourself and others at threat.

Table of Contents

Historical places to visit in Ethiopia

you can start this trip in a spiritual city popular with Ethiopian Orthodox Christians. that’s name is Lalibela. The admiration-inspiring monolithic churches are the highlight then, but meeting the numerous pilgrims is inverse, if not further, satisfying.

places to visit in Ethiopia

After Lalibela, we venture to the mysterious Danakil Depression, one of the hottest and most negative places on Earth. It’s crazy desert geography, with swab lakes, sulfur springs, tinderboxes, and acidic pools. It feels like a true adventure trip, but can only be done with educated stint companies and attendants.

the small megacity of Lalibela, a deeply The gemstone-hewn churches of the Tigray region are commodity unique, and Abuna Yemata Guh may be the most special of them all. Truly, this destination is good for every adventure lover tourist. Because this place is one of the historical places from most historical places to visit in Ethiopia.

This place of deification can only be reached on a steep and occasionally intimidating hike, but rewards trippers with inconceivable views, and a serene and peaceful atmosphere. if you love hiking and ghost adventure, I think this place is for you. The point is managed by several clergymen and preachers.

For those who are thirsty for travel, Africa is one of the destinations. But if you don’t want to travel all over Africa The spectacular Simien mountains offer some of Africa’s stylish chances for hikes and longer journeys, and are also home to the gelada baboons, nicknamed as’bleeding heart monkeys’.

They live in colors and can live high in the mountains. If you travel in the rainy season, you can be hit by rain at any time. That’s why we suggest, you should keep a waterproof bag so that your clothes don’t get wet.

After spending some time in nature, you can continue our trip to Gondar, a friendly megacity with stunning major monuments. Maybe indeed more emotional is Aksum, with some of Ethiopia’s most iconic major and religious spots, similar as the towering shrines (or stelea), and the Church of Saint Mary of Zion (which, according to legend, is the caching place of the Ark of the Covenant, in a small tabernacle). These historical places will take you thousands of years back. this is a different feeling.

Addis Ababa is the capital megacity of Ethiopia. the vibrant capital megacity is an intriguing place to spend a couple of days and serves as a good preface to Ethiopian culture and food. But Addis Ababa is frequently overlooked by trippers, who rush themselves to the North and South of the country. There are some great areas to be visited, including the notorious Mercato, the largest request in Africa. We will go to tell you things to do in Ethiopia – Addis Ababa.

ethiopia places to visit

After Addis, your next destination can be in the South of Ethiopia, which feels veritably different in numerous ways. The first stop then’s Arba Minch, known for its awful Nechisar public demesne. Then, you can take boat passages on one of Ethiopia’s largest lakes, and spot crocodiles, hippos, baboons, pelicans, and other wildlife. The Dorze vill isn’t far from then and offers a peep into traditional vill life.

Its friendly occupants have created a sustainable form of tourism, and callers can substantiate (and take part in) the original frugality at work, with cotton weaving, coffee observances, chuck product, crockery, and much further. When you do these things I think your trip will be meaningful and you will feel satisfied in this trip.

Be sure to keep an electric toothbrush with you when you travel to these places for long days. Which will help to get rid of bad breath and your journey will be colorful.

at least, you can finish this trip in the Omo Valley, which is home to numerous different races and lines. It’s important to travel with original attendants then, as these destinations frequently risk turning into so-called’ mortal safaris’. While tourism can have a positive effect on people’s lives, it’s pivotal that it happens in a regardful and meaningful way.

What are historical places in Ethiopia?

Hey, I think Ethiopia is a historical place. There have many places to travel to. we are talking about some places: Aksum, Fasil Ghebbi, Harar Jugol, the Fortified Historic Town, Konso Cultural Landscape, Lower Valley of the Awash, Lower Valley of the Omo, Rock-Hewn Churches, Lalibela, Simien National Park, Tiya.

What is Ethiopia famous for?

Ethiopia Surprised visitors with stunning scenery, world-renowned coffee, great food, fascinating history, and much more. In particular, lots of tourist attractions in Addis Ababa. and we know where the coffee bean originated Ethiopia is famous for being the place where the coffee bean originated.

Read Post  Where to stay near Bryce Canyon National Park: 12 Best Places to Stay!

What are the two major tourist attraction sites of Ethiopia?

The two major tourist attraction sites of Ethiopia are the ancient city of Aksum and the Mountaintop Monastery of Harar.

What are the most interesting historical places?

Are you finding historical places to visit in Ethiopia? Yeah, Addis Ababa tourist attractions are the most famous and interesting historical places in Ethiopia. without this, there have many places. like Lalibela Rock Churches, The Yeha Temple, Axum, Harar Jugol Wall, Konso Cultural Landscape, Fortified Historic Town, Lower Valley of the Awash National Park, Tiya National Park. and many more.

Which city is the most beautiful in Ethiopia?

Bahir Dar, a city located in the north-central region of Ethiopia, is often considered one of the most beautiful cities in Africa.

Are there any other places to visit apart from Addis Ababa?

Yes, there are many interesting tourist attractions in Ethiopia apart from Addis Ababa. like Ghebbi, Harar Jugol, the Fortified Historic Town, Konso Cultural Landscape, Lower Valley of the Awash National Park, Lower Valley of the Omo National Park, and Simien National Park.

What is the best time to visit Ethiopia?

Between October and June is the best time to visit Ethiopia. Because during this period, the weather is mild and there is less humidity.

Do I need a visa to visit Ethiopia?

No, you do not need a visa to visit Ethiopia. However, you will need a passport valid for at least six months beyond your intended stay in the country.

Conclusion:

There are many interesting and famous historical places in Ethiopia that tourists should visit. Among these, Bahir Dar, the Yeha Temple, Addis Ababa, and Ghebbi are considered to be among the most beautiful cities in Africa. Tourists who want to take advantage of the best time to visit Ethiopia should avoid visiting between June and October because this is when the weather is most humid.

15 Best Things to Do in Ethiopia

As the only African country that has never been colonized, Ethiopia has managed to keep its colorful cultural identity. This is apparent through its historic fortresses, indigenous villages, and deep-seated traditions and customs that permeate the country. One visit to Ethiopia, and you’ll see what makes this country incredibly unique compared to other parts of Africa.

Besides exploring Ethiopia’s rich history, you’ll have the opportunity to immerse yourself in nature. With rugged mountains, shimmering lakes, and even volcanic craters, there are plenty of things to do in Ethiopia in terms of natural beauty. Between the breathtaking landscapes and ancient cultural heritage, Ethiopia is guaranteed to be one of your most memorable trips.

15. Lake Tana

Lake Tana

© Dreamstime

As the primary source of the infamous Blue Nile River, Lake Tana is one of the most diverse ecosystems in Africa. It also happens to be the largest lake in Ethiopia, covering 50 miles of the north-western Ethiopian highlands.

A boat trip is the best way to explore the lake, and you’ll find many companies and locals offering day trips to visitors. As you cruise through the water, you’ll be greeted by an abundance of fish, birds, and even mammals, like hippos and softshell turtles. There are also several monasteries and churches to visit that are situated along the coastline.

14. Fasil Ghebbi

Fasil Ghebbi

© Dreamstime

The spectacular Fasil Ghebbi is a unique architectural masterpiece that mixes both European and Nubian styles. The design of the castle is heavily influenced by Arab and Hindu architecture, while the medieval towers and stone facade were brought over by Jesuit missionaries.

This fortress was built in the 17th-century and was used as the main residence for Ethiopian emperors. As you tour the complex, you’ll get to walk through the main Fasilides’ castle and the Iyasu I’s palace. In addition, you’ll see the Dawit III’s Hall, horse stables, an on-site library, and three neighboring churches.

13. National Museum of Ethiopia

National Museum of Ethiopia

© Dreamstime

Take a deep dive into Ethiopia’s history at the National Museum of Ethiopia. The museum has three different exhibits with thousands of artifacts and archeological finds on display. The most notable exhibit is the paleoanthropological section, which houses the remains of early hominids or apes.

Here, you’ll find the skeleton of “Lucy,” whose fossil remains are over 3.2 million years old. She is believed to be the oldest remains of any human ancestor. The museum also has an exhibit for African art, as well as a display for historical memorabilia from ancient and medieval periods.

12. Blue Nile Falls

Blue Nile Falls

© Dreamstime

The dramatic thundering of the Blue Nile Falls is guaranteed to take your breath away. Although it’s only 138-feet high, this three-streamed waterfall is shrouded in a fog of mist and often accompanied by the faint shimmer of rainbows.

Getting to the falls can be time-consuming and difficult, so a tour guide is often recommended. You can either make the steep trek to the top viewpoint or take a motorboat to the base of the falls. It’s a good idea to avoid going during the dry season from January to March, as there is little water cascading down the falls.

11. Omo National Park

Omo National Park

© Dreamstime

Considered to be Ethiopia’s most remote park, the Omo National Park is a pristine slice of untouched natural beauty. You’ll have the chance to explore sprawling grasslands, lush forests, and bubbling hot springs. The park is also home to several indigenous tribes, including the Mursi, Surma, Mogudge, and Dizi people.

However, most people visit Omo National Park for wildlife viewing. Not only will you find buffalo, elephants, zebras, and kudus, but you’ll also encounter dangerous predators like cheetahs, lions, and leopards.

10. Harar Jegol Wall

Harar Jegol Wall

© Dreamstime

Surrounded by dry desserts and barren savannas, the Harar Jegol Wall is a historic town located on the eastern side of Ethiopia. This walled city was an important trade center and even served as the capital of the Harari Kingdom from 1520 to 1568. Nowadays, Harar continues to be one of the most sacred Islamic cities in the country, with 82 mosques and over 100 shrines.

The walls were built between the 13th and 14th-centuries, although some of the mosques inside the old town date back to the 10th-century. Stroll through the labyrinth of winding alleys and admire the colorful houses and bustling atmosphere that make Harar incredibly unique.

9. Rift Valley lakes

Rift Valley lakes

© Dreamstime

The lakes of the Ethiopian Rift Valley are some of the oldest and deepest lakes in the world. They are situated between the highlands of the Ethiopian Plateau and the Somalia Plateau and continue to have an important impact on Ethiopia’s thriving economy.

During your visit, make the trek to Lake Abaya, which is tinted a deep red due to sediments in the water. You can also go birdwatching at Lake Awassa, fishing in Lake Ziway, and crocodile viewing at Lake Chamo.

8. Dallol

Dallol

© Dreamstime

Comprised of muddy hot springs, boiling sulfuric pools, and toxic gas bubbles, the uninhabited cauldron of Dallol holds the record of being the hottest place on the planet. It has an average temperature of 95 degrees Fahrenheit throughout the year. Despite its threatening appearance, it’s still possible to visit Dallol and even to hike up to the Erta Ale volcanic crater.

Read Post  Disneyland in February: Weather, What to Pack, and What to See

Besides the desire to feel the record-holding temperatures, many travelers visit Dallol to admire the unusual landscape. The colorful canvas of cobalt and turquoise hot springs are juxtaposed against the bright yellow and orange salt deposits, making it a truly jaw-dropping sight.

7. Debre Berhan Selassie

Debre Berhan Selassie

© Dreamstime

From the outside, the modest stone facade of the Debre Berhan Selassie church and monastery may not look like much. But once you step inside, you’ll be surrounded by colorful and elaborate frescoes on all sides.

Much of the artwork is painted in the second Gondarine style and uses rich reds, vibrant yellows, and warm gold colors. While you’re sitting in the pews, look at the ceiling; you’ll see dozens of cherubic angels looking back down at you.

6. Yemrehanna Kristos

Yemrehanna Kristos

© Dreamstime

Built in the 11th-century, the Yemrehanna Kristos Church is one of Ethiopia’s best-preserved Axumite churches. It was built (not carved) inside a basalt lava cave, which makes it unique compared to other churches in the area. However, the most unusual things to see are the piles of mummified bodies that lay in the dark corners behind the church.

Yemrehanna Kristos is relatively off the beaten track. After the long, bumpy journey to the entrance of the cave by off-roading vehicle or donkey, you’ll need to hike another 30 minutes to reach the church.

5. Debre Damo

Debre Damo

© Dreamstime

The journey to the breathtaking Debre Damo monastery is almost as impressive as the building itself. It sits on top of a massive plateau and is only accessible by climbing 50-feet along the cliff using a thin leather rope. Once you reach the top, you’ll be able to say you’ve stepped foot in one of the oldest religious buildings in Ethiopia.

Today, it’s home to over 150 monks who are entirely self-sufficient, which means they grow their own food and raise their own cattle. As one of the more traditional venues, it’s important to note that women are not allowed up the rope or to visit the monastery.

4. Aksum Obelisk

Aksum Obelisk

© Dreamstime

The massive Aksum Obelisk is one of the most iconic landmarks in all of Ethiopia. It was originally built in the 4th-century by the ancient Kingdom of Aksum, but was violently destroyed during an earthquake in the 16th-century. The ruins were discovered by Italian soldiers, who took the pieces back to Rome.

In 2007, the obelisk was returned to Ethiopia and reassembled where it stands today. It was considered to be one of the biggest moments in Ethiopian history.

3. Simien Mountains National Park

Simien Mountains National Park

© Dreamstime

Between the jagged peaks and the lush green valleys, Simien Mountains National Park is one of Ethiopia’s most beautiful attractions. At its center is Ras Dashan, the highest mountain in the country and the tenth-highest in all of Africa.

Most travelers choose to take a multi-day trek through the park. Besides admiring the jaw-dropping scenery, you’ll also have a chance to encounter wildlife that roams through the Simien Mountains. There are over 20 different mammals, including gelada baboons, caracals, and spotted hyenas. If you’re lucky, you might even spot the endangered Walia ibex or Ethiopian wolf.

2. Abuna Yemata Guh

Abuna Yemata Guh

© Dreamstime

A journey to the Abuna Yemata Guh Church is not for the faint of heart. It’s located a staggering 8,500-feet up the side of a cliff, and can only be reached on foot. For the hike, you’ll need to rock climb up rocks, traverse over narrow bridges, and even walk along the unprotected edges of the cliff.

If you can make it through the entire challenge, you’ll be rewarded with a visit to the ancient Abuna Yemata Guh, which dates back to the 5th-century. Inside, you’ll see colorful frescos from the Old Testament. Due to the lack of humidity on the mountain, these frescoes have been preserved for hundreds of years.

1. Rock-Hewn Churches of Lalibela

Rock-Hewn Churches of Lalibela

© Dreamstime

As one of the greatest symbols of Ethiopian Christianity, the Rock-Hewn Churches of Lalibela are a must-see attraction during your visit to Ethiopia. They were named after King Lalibela, who built the churches in the 13th-century in efforts to recreate the city of Jerusalem.

Each of the 11 churches still plays an important role in the Ethiopian Orthodox religion. Not only do they still hold regular services, but they also act as pilgrimage sites for worshipers during the annual Genna festival.

10 Best and Most Incredible Places to Visit in Ethiopia

Ethiopia landscapes

Disclosure: Your support helps keep our site running. We may get a referral fee at no cost to you if you click on our links and make a purchase. Thank you for your support.

Ethiopia is the “Land of Thirteen Months”. It’s a magical country with ancient and spiritual roots, rich in significant religious history and that has a fabulous story to tell. The beauty of wild mountains is only surpassed by the awe-inspiring religious architecture that draws visitors to this amazing country. It’s where legends of the Ark of the Covenant live side by side and in harmony with ancient Islamic mosques. From thundering waterfalls to its vibrant and modern capital city, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia is a place you have to see to believe. Here are 10 of the best and most incredible places to visit in Ethiopia.

1. Simien Mountains

Nestled in the highlands of northern Ethiopia you will find the spectacular Simien Mountains. This jewel of an area makes you feel lost in time with its remarkable rock-hewn churches and medieval castles. These majestic mountains seemed to have been hand-shaped by nature and are home to a rich cultural heritage. They now draw people here to learn about ancient religious sites and to witness the jagged peaks and seemingly endless vistas. The Simien Mountains are also home to a unique but endangered ecosystem, complete with rare and unusual animals like the Gelada baboon, Walia ibex and Ethiopian wolf.

Simien Mountains landscapes

2. Rock-Hewn Churches of Lalibela

Near the small town of Lalibela, there are eleven medieval churches, which are all carved out of massive slabs of volcanic rock! The churches were built in the 12th-century under the direction of King Lalibela. He had a vision of a “New Jerusalem” for Christians who were prevented from making the pilgrimage to the Holy Land because of Muslim conquests across the region. Today it is still a popular pilgrimage site for Coptic Christians. The most fascinating of the ancient churches is the House of Saint George, or Biete Ghiorgis. This church is famed for its cross-shaped design and network of trenches and ceremonial passages which connect it to the other churches. This UNESCO World Heritage Site is truly one of Ethiopia’s incredible places to visit and will leave you in awe of the faith that can move mountains.

Lalibela Rock Churches

3. The Holy City of Harar

Harar is a city in Northeast Ethiopia near the border with Somalia and a great seat of Islamic culture. Its walled city dubbed “Africa’s Mecca,” is home to more than 100 mosques and is also considered the “fourth holy city of Islam”. Harar was built in the 16th century to protect the city against religious invaders. As you stroll down the city’s cobbled and narrow alleys, you will be greeted by friendly Harari women dressed in brightly coloured dresses.

It won’t take long to be told about the legendary “hyena man of Harar”. At the Fallana Gate the “hyena man’ will call out to the hyenas by name in Harari. They come up, one-by-one and take a piece of meat from a stick he has placed in his mouth. If you have the nerve, you can also take a turn hand-feeding these wildly beautiful, but dangerous African predators.

Read Post  Is Juarez Safe for Travel in 2022?

Harar, Ethiopia

4. Gondar

Nestled in the highlands of Northern Ethiopia, you’ll find the fabled city of Gondar. Once you have reached Ras Dashen, the highest peak in the spectacular Simien Mountains, you will be able to marvel at Gondar, the “Camelot of Africa”. The castle was the medieval home to Ethiopian Emperors and Princesses who led the country for nearly 1000 years. Once you have reached the main site, check out the Royal Enclosure which is home to the main attractions in the city.

Another site not to miss is Fasiladas’ Bath. This is where the annual Timkat celebration takes place. The water is blessed by the bishop and splashed on the crowd of pilgrims that come to renew their faith and to take part in the ceremony that replicates Christ’s baptism in the Jordan River. Whilst here don’t forget to visit Debre Berhan Selassie, which is considered to be one of the most beautiful churches in all of Ethiopia.

Gondar Castle

5. Addis Ababa

Addis Ababa is the fourth largest city in Africa and is the diplomatic home to the African Union. This vibrant city sits atop the Entoto Mountains and has both an African and international feel. Addis has a mystical aura that seems to act like a portal to the past. It’s a place where you can explore the beautiful orthodox churches and museums.

Make sure to check out the National Museum where you will find the 2.3 million-year-old fossilized hominid “Lucy”. Also visit the Merkato, which is the largest open-air market in Africa. Here you’ll have your senses awakened with the smell of pungent spices and roasting coffee.

At night, the city comes alive with a vibrant nightlife with restaurants serving exotic Ethiopian cuisine. Day trips from Addis should include the Entoto Mountains, the crater lakes at Debre Zeyit and the hot springs at Awash National Park. Pamper yourself by staying at the Sheraton Addis where you will be treated like royalty in one of Africa’s few 5-star resorts.

Medhane Alem Cathedral

6. Blue Nile Falls

Close to the city of Bahir Dar you will find the incredible Blue Nile Falls. The locals call it Tis- Isat Falls (translated as “Smoke of Fire”) and it is the most impressive sight on either the Blue or White Nile. The falls stretch a quarter-mile wide during the flood season and drops into a gorge of more than 150 feet deep. You can see how the falls got their name because it throws up a never-ending mist that drenches sightseers from half a mile away. The rainbows produced are awe-inspiring and creates an Eden-like perennial rainforest of lush verdant foliage. You will not be alone in this paradise; the forest is home to a wide variety of monkeys and exotically coloured birds.

Blue Nile Falls, Ethiopia

7. Aksum

Head to Aksum and you will see more ancient history that you can imagine. Aksum is one of the oldest cities in all of Africa and is rich in legend and mystery. It is believed to be the home of the Queen of Sheba and the final resting place of the legendary Ark of the Covenant. Unfortunately, visitors are not allowed into the church where the Ark is said to be, but you can still check out the ancient Aksumite obelisks found in the Northern Stelae Field. The largest obelisk was recently returned to Ethiopia by the Italian government where it sat for decades after it was taken to Italy during WWII. It’s ruins and ancient legends will fascinate any lover of history. In addition to legends of Sheba and the Ark, locals believe that the roughly hewn tomb of solid rock of King Bazen was actually Balthazar, and the magi carried news of Christ’s birth to Ethiopia.

Chapel of the Tablet in Aksum

8. Arba Minch

On the shores of Abaya Lake in Southern Ethiopia, Arba Minch is full of natural wonder and beauty. Arba Minch in Amharic means “forty springs,” and the area is rich in many tiny springs that bubble up from the ground. You can see many of them as you hike through Nechisar National Park.

The most incredible sight in Arba Minch is the cliff top holy spot of Abuna Yemata Church. This rock-hewn church is found only after a mildly challenging climb up the sheer cliff wall. It requires a bit of nerve and a lack of vertigo, but your effort will be greatly rewarded. Views from the church are remarkable and inside this ancient holy church, you will find beautiful and well-preserved frescoes that adorn two cupolas.

Arba Minch

9. Danakil Depression

If you are up a really hot time, then make your way to Ethiopia’s Danakil Depression. The Depression overlaps the borders of Eritrea and Djibouti and is part of the great East African Rift Valley.

The Afar people call this northeastern part of Ethiopia home and against all odds, have not only existed for centuries but still have a thriving community. But beware, the climate is unforgiving and widely considered the hottest (average temp of 94F), driest (4 – 8 inches of annual rainfall) and lowest spot (400 feet below sea level) on the planet. Having said all that, this unearthly landscape is an incredible place to visit.

The lava lake at Erta Ale is one of only six lava lakes on Earth and will leave you in awe. The multi-coloured hydrothermal bubbling lakes and great salt pans will amaze you and have you question if you are still on Planet Earth. The site is also rich in fossils of ancient hominid. The famed fossil of “Lucy” was found in this area in 1974.

Erta Ale lava lake

10. The People of the Lower Omo Valley

If you want a cultural experience that you will never forget, then plan a trip to the Lower Omo Valley. Here you can connect with one of more than a dozen indigenous peoples that live in the region.

The valley is dependent on the Omo River to live as it feeds the dry savannah that supports the local communities. Each of the villages has their own customs and language and have lived basically the same lifestyle for centuries. The Mursi and Hamar are proud people who adorn themselves in unusual body art and jewellery and cattle are vital to their existence. They are also very territorial and will fiercely defend their land and way of life. Even though the region is remote, many tour companies operate treks to the Lower Omo Valley and several of its villages. Just be prepared for a pricey and challenging trip–both logistically and physically.

Portrait of Hamer Tribe Men

Summary

Discover some of the most beautiful and interesting places in Ethiopia by adding some of these places to your itinerary. Including unique and cultural destinations, national parks and historic landmarks. Start planning your trip today and discover the highlights Ethiopia has to offer.

Source https://tourisminsights.info/historical-places-to-visit-in-ethiopia/#:~:text=There%20are%20many%20interesting%20and%20famous%20historical%20places,be%20among%20the%20most%20beautiful%20cities%20in%20Africa.

Source https://www.touropia.com/best-things-to-do-in-ethiopia/

Source https://www.travelanddestinations.com/incredible-places-to-visit-in-ethiopia/

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *