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10 Important Characteristics of Hiking Shoes Explained

In this post, we are going to discuss some of the most important physical and non-physical characteristics of shoes and boots for hiking (this piece is a fantastic resource about different types of backpacking footwear, their advantages, disadvantages, and main features).

Do you know what the purpose of wearing shoes is? Basically, footwear is intended to provide comfort for wearers and offer good protection for human feet against harsh conditions. Similarly, the main purposes of hiking shoes are to protect your feet against bruising and abrasion from rough wilderness terrain, to cushion your soles, and to provide good traction on a rough, steep, slippery, wet, and muddy terrain.

Backpacking shoes must also offer enough stability and be durable. A reliable hiking shoe is a long-lasting shoe that won’t leave you in the middle of the trail. For long-distance backpacking, shoes need to be supportive and, preferably, lightweight. They also need to feel flexible and comfortable when walking. However, on rough surfaces, shoes might have to be stiffer and more supportive.

Hiking footwear also needs to be functional and be able to respond to changing environments and different surface types. This usually depends on the boot construction. If you want to learn more about the components of hiking shoes as well as the materials from which they are made, you can check out our post on the anatomy of hiking shoes. Needless to say, these two topics are closely related because the perceived characteristics of a pair of trekking shoes depend very much on the materials as well as on the components of the footwear.

Hiking boot

Here are ten of the most important characteristics of hiking footwear. This can be a great reference point for you when choosing footwear as it explains what to look for in hiking shoes:

Table of Contents

Hiking boot fit

Fit is critical. No matter how well a boot is constructed, it will not function properly if it does not fit well.

Shoemakers say ‘the last is first’ to reinforce the importance of properly fitting footwear. The last is the foot-shaped form on which shoes are made, and the shape of the last has a significant influence on fit. Fit directly influences comfort. Proper fit is also a prerequisite of function.

Does a perfect fit exist?

Providing mass-produced trekking boots with a good fit is a challenging goal. For example, if a shoe manufacturer expects to fit 90% of their male customers with size 43, they will have to accommodate men weighing anywhere from 60 kg to 100 kg. In addition to this individual variability, people typically have different sized left and right feet. Their feet change in length, width, girth, and volume throughout the day and even during a given sports activity. Feet are active during hiking and backpacking and foot shape is exceedingly dynamic. Thus no static last shape can produce perfect fit in all situations and at all times for all people.

The benefits of shoes that fit well are the following:

  • Proper stability and support for the foot
  • Protection from foot injuries
  • Adequate shock-absorption and comfort
  • Prolonged wear and retention of shoe shape

What is a good fitting of the hiking shoe?

The shoe needs to have a shape and dimensions which maintain good health. Good fitting also means comfort in most cases. The optimal underfoot shape also gives a good fitting, if it is checked carefully. Insole and socks need to be checked as carefully as styling to ensure they fit the user. Generally, trekking shoes do not fit as firmly as fashion shoes. Our feet normally expand by 5% during the day. Keep this in mind when choosing hiking shoes.

Proper fitting of footwear to feet involves understanding feet, shoes, and the selection of shoes to achieve a required fit. With respect to feet, many sources of foot anthropometry are available. However, there’s one problem. It stems from the fact that the footwear sizing system is primarily based on foot length but footwear manufacturers resort to using length, width and girth measures. Hence, a mismatch in any dimension generally results in poor fitting.

In general, women’s feet are narrower and lower volume than men’s feet. This explains why men’s and women’s hiking boots are made on different sized lasts. Certainly, there are men with narrower feet who find that women’s boots fit them best just as there are women with larger, wider feet who prefer men’s boots.

How should hiking boots fit? A short guide on how to fit hiking boots

Take your time when choosing hiking footwear because fit is critical. Try on several makes and styles until you find something as close as possible to the perfect fit. It’s very difficult to find a pair of hiking boots that fit exactly but with this guide, you will know exactly what to do next time when choosing footwear.

Key factors to consider

Size is the first thing to consider. It’s an important measurement but shoe fitting may not be successful if only length from heel to toe is considered. Keep in mind that shoe sizing is not standardized so sizing between manufacturers is not consistent. Moreover, variability in size may exist even among styles of a particular brand.

Arch length is the measurement from the heel to the ball of the foot and is a more important measurement than the foot length. It will determine how the foot fits inside of a shoe, which determines shoe functionality. Considering the arch length is so important because the shoe needs to flex at the proper location.

The width of the foot is measured at the ball region. Just as with sizing, manufacturers use different measurements for measuring width.

The thickness of the foot (how much the foot occupies inside of a shoe) from top to bottom is another important factor to be considered in determining fit.

Unfortunately, fit is difficult to quantify because there is much subjectivity involved in how a person perceives the right fit. One person may prefer a tight fit, while another may prefer a looser fitting shoe. As a general rule of thumb, the right boot for you approximates the shape of your foot in volume, width, and length. If one of your feet is longer than the other (as is often the case), make sure it gets the best fit.

What else is important?

Late-day shopping

Consider shopping in the evening (or at least in the afternoon) because most people’s feet swell and expand during the day. In addition, visit the store at a quiet time and take along the hiking socks that you will wear on the trail. Make sure your hiking socks are made of synthetics, merino wool or blends of wool and synthetics. Cotton absorbs too much moisture. As a result, it feels cold and clammy, wrinkles, and is more likely to give you blisters.

Try on both boots

Make sure you try on both boots and after lacing them up firmly, stand and walk for several minutes. As a rule, boots should fit snugly around the heel, ankle, and instep but have room for you to wiggle your toes. It’s also important that your toes do not jam against the toe box when you press your foot forward (the best test of toe space is to stand on a downward incline for a while). Too tight as well as too loose boots can cause blisters.

Keep in mind that finding hiking boots that fit properly is much harder than finding a pair of comfortable lightweight shoes. The reason for this is that lightweight trekking shoes are softer and more flexible so they mold to the feet faster than leather boots. Keep in mind that plastic composite boot needs to fit well from the start; it has a rigid shell that will not conform to your feet as much as the lining of a leather boot will.

Always break in the boots

Make sure you wear your new hiking footwear (medium and heavy-weight models will need at least a short break-in period) at home for a few hours or even a few days just to check that they really do fit. Lightweight models are often comfortable out-of-the-box and don’t need a break-in period.


Resistance to slippage, the so-called “traction” has long been a selling feature for companies claiming exclusive tread patterns or outsole designs.

Measuring traction

To measure traction, manufacturers conduct tests to determine the coefficient of friction and the slip resistance characteristics for shoes or materials under varying surface conditions. The coefficient of friction is a number between 0 and 1 indicating the slip-resistance of a material. The closer the value to 1, the slipping is less likely. Hiking shoe traction is achieved with an increase in outsole traction and with midsole stability.

The outsole is the layer that comes into contact with the ground. It is supposed to be durable and to provide enough traction. Most outsoles are made of rubber because the material is both soft and durable. Though there are several types of rubber, the outsole is usually made from blown rubber and carbon rubber. The former is lighter and softer but it is also less durable and wears faster than carbon rubber. Thus, blown rubber is usually used at the forefoot of the shoe, while carbon rubber is used mainly at the heel. The outsole must be designed according to the intended use of footwear. Having more relevant information and (especially) experience can be crucial in order to choose footwear with correct soiling. This will help you avoid slipping and stumbling.

To slip or not to slip

The two most frequent reasons for injuries on the trail (even in cold environments) are slipping and falling. Slips usually occur when a foreign substance such as water, sand, ice or mud comes between the shoe and the surface. Two types of slippage are possible in most activities. The foot can slip forward or sideways upon initial contact with the surface, or it can slip backward during the push-off phase. Although the most dangerous slip is probably in the forward direction, most tests have been done to simulate push-off slip.

Man standing at waterfalls edge


Conventional hiking boots often fail to provide sufficient ventilation. This causes discomfort to the wearers in hot climates because the feet become really hot and the lack of ventilation does not allow moisture to escape from the boot. This results in many skin problems such as blisters, rashes, and infections.

The fact that the shoe covers the foot results in an inside environment different from the surrounding air. The temperature and humidity will always be greater inside the shoe. The more the upper materials can transmit the moisture, the greater the reduction of perspiration around the foot. The more moisture absorbs, the more breathable the material, resulting in greater comfort. Using simple perforation is another effective measure to improve the breathability of trekking shoes. It’s very important to have adequately ventilated shoes to keep your feet dry. This helps to keep the feet warm and comfortable in cold weather conditions and cool and comfortable in hot climates.

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The use of combinations of materials is common. Some uppers are constructed from synthetic fabric with patches of synthetic leather for durability. This decreases the weight of the trekking shoe, making it washable and breathable, so the feet don’t become too hot. Synthetic materials are usually more permeable than leather. The most common man-made materials in hiking shoe uppers are nylon meshes. Nylon mesh which is knitted instead of woven is more popularly used because its strength doesn’t depend on the tightness of the weave. Layering is also widespread. All these factors affect the overall breathability of the hiking shoe. If you’re looking for the best ventilated hiking shoes, you may be interested in this boot by KEEN.


For most good hikers, the weight of the shoe is an important consideration when choosing hiking footwear. That’s why many experienced backpackers prefer wearing lightweight hiking shoes such as the Salomon XA Pro 3D. Others give more credit to leather hiking boots as more solid and reliable footwear. In general, long-lasting hiking boots are heavier. When maintained in good shape, they can last several years or more.

How important is shoe weight?

Wearing heavy backpacking boots results in greater oxygen consumption and energy demands, thus hindering performance; however, it can also provide more ankle support and stability on the trail, especially if you carry a large and heavy pack. The general trend is to reduce shoe weight as much as possible without sacrificing performance, protection, and other characteristics.

Generally, try to evaluate shoe weight relative to other features. Even though the foot and shoe weigh relatively little, the weight factor is an important one to consider. You’ve probably heard that a kilo on the shoe feels like five to six kilos on the back. That’s because the foot and shoe are at the farthest distance from the hip axis, any added weight requires much greater muscle force to move it. Additionally, the foot moves through a longer distance than any other part of the leg. A reasonable backpacker needs to find the balance between the reduction in shoe weight and other important features (such as traction and cushioning).

How do manufacturers reduce shoe weight?

The lightness of the shoe is achieved mainly via the choice of upper materials and by using less cushioning. Nowadays, lightweight boots and shoes are usually made with synthetic materials. For example, some models of mountaineering boots incorporate synthetic fabric panels that partially replace leather. This reduces the shoe weight, the break-in time, improves comfort, and lowers costs. On the flip side, these boots are less durable and offer less stability on difficult terrain. They are also less waterproof than all-leather hiking boots.

Hiker traversing difficult terrain

Lightweight hiking shoes thrive in various environments and conditions Photo by Jan-Niclas Aberle


Cushioning is the ability of a shoe to absorb shock. Most companies use the terms “cushioning” and “shock absorption” interchangeably. Thus, regarding trekking shoes, shock absorption and cushion are different terms for the same thing.

How does cushioning work?

The human body has the ability to sense damaging motions as discomfort or pain. Poor cushioning ratings are a good predictor of discomfort and pain in feet. But how does cushioning work in reality? A cushioning system functions by increasing the duration of an impact, thereby reducing the shock load transmitted to the musculoskeletal system. During walking, the ground reaction force is approximately 1.25 times the body weight and during running, the ground reaction force can reach levels of 2 to 3 times the body weight. Thus, midsole cushioning is supposed to attenuate or dampen the impact forces acting on the body during usage.

Main cushioning materials

In the early days, rubber was used as a cushioning material. Nowadays, cushioning technology is quite varied with manufacturers marketing all sorts of air soles, pads, gel or fluid soles.

Some 20 years ago, Salomon Brothers industry report stated:

“No company has publicized that its cushioning technologies outperform another because generally, these cushioning technologies perform no better than regular polyurethane (PU) or ethylene-vinyl-acetate (EVA) foam. Investing in the creation and strong marketing of these technologies provides credibility to companies that their product will actually help with true athletic performance, and thus helps give a specific brand an aura of being an authentic athletic brand”.

Today, EVA and PU are still the most widespread materials for hiking shoe midsoles. EVA is a type of foam that provides cushioning increases shock absorption and decreases shearing. PU is a polymer that resists compression. It’s heavier and harder but it’s also more durable than EVA. Most shoes have either EVA or PU midsoles; however, some midsoles are made with the combination of both EVA (in the forefoot) and PU (in the rearfoot because it’s more resistant to compression and can absorb the impact better).

Shock absorption isn’t always the best solution

Even though midsole cushioning is supposed to attenuate or dampen the forces on the body, the actual force acting on the body remains relatively unchanged with footwear. Thus, most problems arise when a wearer of a shoe perceives a relatively false sense of security. What’s interesting is that this false sense of security increases impact and injury with users of expensive shoes. Why is that? The main reason is that users of expensive shoes tend to underestimate the loads (or alternatively expect the shoes to protect their feet) and hence are more prone to injury.

Another interesting finding was made in the 90s. Then three-quarter cut aerobic shoes were associated with a higher number of aerobic injuries. Apparently, it was perceived that the wearers had a false sense of security about ankle protection with the three-quarter-ankle shoes. That’s what often happens on the trail as well. Some hikers overestimate the ankle support and protection provided by their footwear and as a consequence, they suffer an injury.

Hikers on Green Mountain Trail

Photo by Brodie Vissers


Footwear is intended to provide comfort for wearers. The ideal in-shoe microclimate is a boundary layer of air around the foot approximately 29°C with low relative humidity. Though keeping the hiker’s foot cool and dry is mainly a matter of comfort, it prevents the formation of blisters too.

What’s important for comfort?

Oxygen consumption and fatigue have been strongly correlated with comfort. If a hiking shoe is making the user consume more oxygen and the muscle activity is higher, the user will feel uncomfortable in that shoe. Improving the comfort of a shoe can result in a reduction in stress-related injuries. The breadth of the forefoot can also influence the perception of comfort. As a rule, narrow and shallow shoes lead to a higher incidence of forefoot injury. However, the fit of the hiking shoe is not solely sufficient for comfort. Differences in comfort have been associated with several factors. Among them: changes in muscle activity, foot shape, fit between foot and footwear, foot sensitivity, the weight of the shoe, and temperature.

Even though it is well known that fit or product compatibility is necessary for a person to experience comfort, safety, and satisfaction during use, the form has dominated the design and development of footwear over the last few decades. And it is only one of the factors, on which product performance depends.

Most people are able to identify what is a comfortable and non-comfortable shoe. Materials, especially on linings, are also important for a comfortable feel. Regarding the choice of lining material, you need to think about how moisture will be absorbed from the lining. Mesh lining is a good solution since it is breathable, moisture-wicking, and quick-drying.

Support and stability

Stability of the hiking shoe is achieved with cushioning, medial support and with a semi-curved or curved last: it supports foot movement. Proper design and correct inserts give additional stability. If you want to determine a shoe’s stability, just squeeze its rear part (the sides of the heel counter). Stable hiking shoes usually resist compression. They also resist twisting while flexible shoes twist easily.

Generally, the more surface area in contact with the ground the more support the shoe offers the foot. This means that a shoe that has a sole as wide as the upper can be advantageous for extra support.

Is ankle support that important?

Many people believe that for better ankle support, you need heavy, stiff footwear. Especially when carrying a heavy pack or hiking on rough terrain. However, most walking boots offer little ankle support, because of their soft cuffs. Only boots with high, stiffened cuffs give real ankle support. But the stiff ankle support restricts foot movement so much that when you walk in these boots, your walk is seriously hindered. Apparently, stiff-ankled boots and natural foot movement do not go together. Generally, it’s much better strengthening your ankles than torturing your feet in heavy, rigid boots.

Some of the greatest strain on your ankles occurs when you run over steep, rough ground. Yet trail runners never wear boots but low-cut and much lighter footwear. For traversing steep, rugged terrain, you need strong, flexible ankles and lightweight hiking shoes. They are less likely to cause blisters and what’s more, trekking shoes are more comfortable and less fatiguing to wear than boots. One of the main drawbacks of lightweight hiking shoes is related to the fact that they may not be able to provide enough support when carrying a heavy pack, especially on rough ground or descents.

Backpacker stepped on a hill top


An argument in favor of heavy boots to lightweight shoes is that stiff soles protect your feet from rough terrain and help support heavy loads. It might be true but there are also some shortcomings.

Downsides of wearing stiff-soled hiking boots

  • They restrict natural foot movement which can make you feel unstable
  • Stiff soles can’t flex enough to accommodate to the terrain
  • They may prevent you from placing your feet naturally, leading to a slow and unnatural gait possibly leading to an injury
  • Straining against the stiffness is energy-consuming and tiring

Sole stiffness is required only on rough and snowy terrain. Traveling on hard snow with a flexible boot is a disadvantage because:

  1. You won’t be able to kick good steps; and
  2. Crampon bindings may not stay on if a boot is too flexible

For this reason, mountaineers prefer wearing rigid boots such as La Sportiva Nepal EVO GTX. These days, plastic composite boots are very popular not only among mountaineers and ice climbers but also among all those interested in snow and glacier routes. Each plastic boot consists of two parts – 1) hard synthetic outer shell and 2) inner insulating boot. This configuration allows you to pull straps and bindings tightly without impairing circulation in the feet. It also makes stiff hiking boots suitable for use with crampons and snowshoes.

Rigid plastic boots – a no-no for backpacking

Though rigid plastic boots are perfect for snow and ice, they are a poor choice for general trail use. There are several reasons for this but three of the most significant ones are:

  • Waterproofness is preferable in wet conditions but waterproof boots and shoes dry slower than non-waterproof hiking footwear. Moreover, waterproof footwear cannot keep your feet dry in prolonged wet conditions. The reason is that even if your feet do not get soaked from the outside, they will get soaked from the inside from all the sweat and condensation that will build up. Third downside of waterproof boots and shoes comes from the use of waterproof membranes. They cut breathability, which means that your feet will sweat more not only in hot but also in warm to cool weather. And finally, proper shoe care is of prime importance as you need to maintain the waterproofness of your trekking boots by applying DWR (durable water repellent) regularly.
  • Stiffness makes walking less comfortable especially for multi-day backpacking trips and long trails in general. Moreover, stiff hiking boots require more time and effort to be broken in.
  • A certain degree of warmth is desirable in cold environments, however, too much warmth causes the feet to sweat more than usual, which inevitably leads to moisture buildup in the footwear.
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The durability of hiking shoes depends on the material, technology used, storage, duration of use, the terrain as well as the weather conditions (including humidity). Synthetics are much more prone to abrasion damage than leather hiking shoes. If you like hiking on rough and rocky terrain, you need durable hiking shoes or boots, preferably with an upper made of leather. In general, a pair of leather boots is not only going to hold up better to the elements but also last longer as far as general wear and tear are concerned.

Durability in the upper is achieved with toe bumpers and stitching as reinforced toe and heel provide durability and protection. Durability in the sole is achieved with materials and traction design.

Military boots parachute jump

Tactical and military boots are durable and multifunctional Photo by Jana Sabeth

Tactical and military footwear is famous for its durability as well as the high level of protection it provides (especially from environmental threats). It’s because military personnel use their boots frequently, sometimes for long periods of time, in a range of conditions and environments. So their feet have to be protected from many threats, including abrasions, temperatures, humidity, potentially dangerous animals and plants. Moreover, the boots need to be abrasion and wear-resistant and to offer the capability for high performance in less than ideal conditions. And all of these should come at an affordable price. If you’re looking for functional and durable footwear, you can check out our suggestion for tactical boots.


A pair of good trekking shoes need to protect your feet against harsh conditions on the trail. These include cold and wet environments as well as hard and rough surfaces. To some extent, the level of protection depends on the weight of the footwear (heavier trekking shoes or boots often, though not necessarily always, provide better protection). However, much more important factors for good foot protection are:

  • The material that your hiking shoes have been made of
  • The presence or absence of additional features such as toe cap

When hiking on rough terrain, you need additional protection not only for your feet and heels but for your toes as well. Rubber toe caps provide additional protection for your toes acting as a buffer between you and the twigs and branches that you encounter on your way.

An integrated gusseted tongue is another useful feature offering better protection for your foot. The idea is to keep pebbles, sand, and debris out of your hiking shoes. Keep in mind that there’s often a tradeoff between needed protection level and functionality or required performance.

Backpackers negotiating rough terrain


Our feet are unique and they have special requirements. One style will not fit all and therefore it is difficult to make a general prescription for appropriate hiking footwear. However, the best choice of a shoe is usually a compromise between the shoe’s walking comfort and its technical capability a.k.a. functionality.

Good hiking boots need to offer a balance between light weight, support, and stability; cushioning and functionality; stiffness and breathability. They must also be durable, protect your feet, and provide comfort. And above all, they need to fit. Fit is closely related to comfort. No matter how many functional features a boot might possess, if it doesn’t fit, people simply won’t buy it. The appearance is also important. As with fit, if the boot is unappealing to the eye, most consumers won’t buy it.

There is an axiom that the shoes designed to excel at one function will almost surely fail at another. However, today you can find wonderful shoes and boots for almost every use. No doubt, today’s hiking footwear is far superior to what existed years ago. The main reason for this – nowadays, design, construction, and functionality are more important than the identifying logo.

What to do if Profits are Declining

What to do if Profits are Declining

There are instances in business when profits start to decline. This unfortunate event can occur due to several factors that come into play together or separately. The root of this problem can be figured, and if done so at the right time, it can be turned around. The most important thing to look at when profits start to go down is customer behaviour. Customer’s behaviours can change over time, and this can result in tumbling revenue if not adapted to.

We all know that nothing in general or in the business world stays the same. Things are constantly changing, and the owner is always at risk. This can happen to several things that can lead to the overall decrease in profits and sometimes even turning profits into losses. The marketing and sales strategies that you had in play may have worked for a long time, but they might be outdated or irrelevant in today’s time period. The world is moving at a fast pace and keeping in Line with everything it is essential to make changes almost all the time to save the profits from deteriorating.

If you want to avoid a decline in profits, the first thing to do is to look for factors that indicate that it’s time for a change and adaptation. It is dangerous to stay idle and do nothing about the factor as the business might cease to exist if the problem is not solved. So let’s first have a look at all the factors that indicate that profits might decline and how to counter them and the already declining profits.

Factors indicating a decline in profits:

The Accounting Equation indicator

To calculate the operating profits, you have to deduct the costs of the goods and the expenses from the sales costs of the goods. For instance, if a company sells goods worth £2000 which costs £1800 in total and expenses are £100, then the total operating profit will be £100 i.e., 2000-1800-100= 100. The operating profits originate from the core business transactions, which means that these transactions are not regular day-to-day transactions. Moreover, investments, taxes, and interests are not accounted for when calculating operational profits. The purpose of this accounting equation is to give you insights about whether a transaction taking place will have a positive or negative impact on your operating profit. So, a negative accounting equation while calculating operational profits will cause your profits to fall and can be fatal to the business. It is very important to keep a check on your accounting equation as it indicates whether profits will decline or not and you need to decide how many negative transactions your business can accommodate and what changes you need to make to avoid them.

Increased Supplier Costs

Another simple yet important factor that can lead to declining profits is selling goods at a higher cost. Now, this could happen due to several reasons, but the most common is the prices increased by the supplier. The suppliers can increase prices of materials over time due to their own motive of making more profits or sometimes their own costs shoot up. As a result, they charge you a higher price than before. These higher prices can negatively impact your profits. Consequently, you may have to look for alternative suppliers to counter this issue.

Lower Price Goods

Lower Prices of Goods

Sometimes companies lower the prices of the goods to attract more customers and generate more sales. However, this doesn’t always go in their favour and can backfire by reducing profits. Sales might increase, but the cuts in prices may reduce the overall profits. So, it is better to focus on maintaining a brand image which helps increase profits by keeping prices stable in the long run.

Maintaining a set price is essential because if you lower the price for a long time, customers get used to it and won’t follow through when you increase the prices. However, when the prices go down in the industry, then you are bound to decrease prices, and that is where the profits will fall if you can’t cut down on your expenses and costs.

Additional Costs of Goods Sold

Alongside the rise in supplier prices, additional costs add to the higher costs of goods sold. For instance, if you take an environmental approach to the business by introducing an eco-friendly packaging, the additional cost of packaging can either be put on customers or born by the business itself. Consequently, the profits will decline in either case. Other additional costs include a rise in transportation costs.

Highly competitive market

Another factor that adds to the declination of profits is intense competition from rivals. The competition can increase due to strategies of already existing rivals or the addition of new rivals. In both cases, your profits can fall down drastically because of the more intense the competition, the harder it is to gain customers. Consequently, sales decline and as a result, your purchase of supplies decline. When this happens, you lose the liberty of enjoying the low costs of bulk buying from the supplier. The whole process leads to a decline in profits.

Changes in Industry

Industries that are fast-paced and highly depend on technology and innovation change regularly. The introduction of new technology or product will highly impact your product sales as it will become obsolete. As a result, the profits fall as your sales start to decline until you incorporate the new technology into your product or come up with something better.

These are all the major reasons behind the decline in profits of your business.

How to Improve

Now let’s have a look at how to counter these reasons and how to get out of the slump.

Implementing new business strategies

In a market where there is intense competition, profits can be impacted heavily, as mentioned before. But there are ways to counter this competition. You can disrupt the intense competition by bringing in a new business strategy or altering an old one. What you can do is change the focus of the business from one of cost to moving into niche markets. However, keep in mind that this strategy is most successful in large industries that have the potential to support segmentation and lesser supply competition. Moreover, you can also implement the differentiation strategy. In a marketplace with high competition, advertising the differences in your product and how it is better than the alternates is quite successful.

How to improve

Adjusting the product

Adjusting the products can majorly increase profits. A bad product or service can create negative views in the audience’s eyes. These negative views can lead to a decline in sales and consequently, a decline in profits. So, you should look for problems in the inventory and observe which product has been lacking behind. Adjust them by dropping them or making them better. Moreover, on the technical side, keep an eye for software glitches, etc. if you feel like upgrading a product is financially challenging then consider keeping it on the side for a while or change the way you market it.

Streamline Purchasing

No customers want to go through a complex process of purchasing an item or service. Asking them to visit complicated websites and go through complex checkout procedures makes the whole process less enjoyable for them. Streamline purchasing by walking through the whole shopping experience. As a business owner, make sure that this procedure is not painful for the customers. By providing easy and safe purchasing, you can satisfy the customers, and as a result, the profits will increase.

Altering Employee Strategies

There are times when the downfall of a company starts from the top and falls down to the bottom. Poor management and integration of business results in declining profits. Poor management also leads to unhappy employees who become frustrated over time. Consequently, they will not work at their true potential and won’t treat the customers right. Make sure you have strict employee policies. When you hire someone, go through everything to ensure that they are the best fit for the job you have to offer. Revisit the expectations of the company from the employee with them and keep reminding them. Make sure you provide them with incentives to work harder.

Invest time in identifying the problem

Invest Time

Never rely on your first instinct when finding the cause of the problem as they are often wrong. It is always recommended to invest your time and effort when investigating the decline in profits. Once you the root of the problem, only then you can implement the correct and effective strategies.

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Always start by reviewing the financial statements of the company and the account records. Compare the data over the years and figure out the intensity of the decline. You can also compare the current slump with previous ones, and that might tell you what has been going on.

Think carefully before cutting down on expenses

There are instances in a business where expenses cut downs become essential. However, when deciding to cut down expenses, one should remain very careful. Make sure you don’t cut down those expenses that negatively impact your productivity or disturb the employees. Cut down on expenses like changing the internet to a cheaper alternative that offers the same speed.

Look at all the positives and negatives of cutting down and expense and choose the most suitable options. For instance, if you have decided to cut down a support staff, it will be handy to think about the negative impact it will have on productivity.

Cautiously think about the effect of uncommon things, lags, and run rates.

Make certain to audit both year-over-year and month-by-month budgetary information. Any one-time costs or incomes (e.g., an unanticipated lawful cost, preventable stock decay, or sudden pay like Meaningful Use instalments) ought to be isolated out to decide hidden, institutionalized monetary execution. This will enable you to stay away from confusion about whether explicit things comprise unsafe patterns or are just planning contrasts or exceptional things improbable to repeat.

Suppose, for instance, that you’ve contracted a new physician during the year. Toward the part of the arrangement, you may find that her income misses the mark regarding desires. However, it may be wrong to reason that her creation isn’t on objective. A few sorts of slacks could influence her aggregate for that first year. Her efficiency for the last few months of the year will disclose to you progressively about the pace she’s working at (her “run rate”) than the entire year figures. The impact of credentialing, charging, and instalment slacks on physician income ought to likewise be considered. Investigate both charged sums and accumulations to get a clearer picture.

Rejig your bookkeeping techniques if fundamental.

Practices that have acquired workplaces or propelled new organizations some of the time overlay those substances into the current accounts. This unravels bookkeeping and accounting, however, makes it increasingly hard to recognize the main driver of issues at hand.


In case you’re uncertain whether individual business exercises are adding to benefit (or by how much), the (in fact repetitive) exercise of isolating out the financials can extraordinarily improve your examination. What’s more, in case you’re thinking about obtaining training or including another office or business line in 2019, plan in advance for the following costs and incomes in a manner that enables you to proficiently provide details regarding their benefit, not simply the exhibition of your business in total.

All the more, for the most part, paying little mind to practice structure, chiefs and bookkeepers frequently vary in their inclinations for following cost lines. On the off chance that your monetary reports show only a couple of general cost and income lines—each with numerous things folding up into the sums—think about progress to progressively granular bookkeeping. While this will mean progressively forthright accounting exertion, having the option to assess your numbers productively and successfully is significant—and can enable you to avert benefit issues before they start.

Realize that revenue is mostly the issue

Practices with unexplained or steep benefit issues may initially respond by cutting costs. Costs are frequently not the base of the issue, however—and concentrating on cuts may have restricted effect. Cutting costs can likewise aggravate benefit issues. For instance, staff decreases may legitimately influence clinician productivity, and less sent on promotion may mean fewer new patients. Moreover, cost slices frequently lead to fear and dissolve assurance, which can prompt turnover that can weaken monetary execution much more.

Doctors and practice administrators regularly go to cost cuts first since they belittle how much income can be improved. Repayments may, in fact, be crushed, yet there are numerous drivers of your income, you can impact altogether—and now and again effectively. Indeed, even little enhancements in income drivers like convenient charging and accumulations, records of sales, planning, and no-shows will satisfy over and over.

Income may likewise decrease due to things going on outside your entryways, for example, a dunk in the neighbourhood economy, cutbacks at a noteworthy manager, or a new challenge. Doctors and administrators who are centred around everyday difficulties may miss the greater picture effects on training execution. The effect of these externalities can be significant—at the same time, in addition to the side. They may display new income openings.

For instance, when enormous contenders enter a nearby showcase, autonomous practices might almost certainly contend adequately by offering progressively advantageous or customized administrations. At the point when new bosses or new wellbeing plans, please the scene, your training can stand apart by working adaptably with these associations and focusing on them for tweaked advertising endeavours.

The bottom Line

It can be concluded that operating a business is associated with constant risks. However, the fear of risks shouldn’t discourage you from following your dreams as a lot can be done to counter the risks involved. You can prepare for the decline in profits in advance by doing your research and keeping an eye on certain aspects of the business related to accounts, finance, and sales. The most common reason for a company to go out of business is a decline in profits. We have mentioned the major reasons by which the decline is caused and how to counter them. Moreover, there are several ways discussed above that show how you can jump out of a profit declining slump effectively by implementing the right strategies at the right time.

Shoaib Aslam is the co-founder of Pearl Chartered Accountants, a UK-based chartered accountancy firm that has multiple locations across London. They are experts in helping startups and established businesses with all aspects of growth, strategy, scaling up, accounting and tax planning.

Running Shoes VS Hiking Boots


I get asked about backpacking footwear all the time and the question is almost always the same. Hikers want to know if it’s really okay to backpack in running shoes and how light their packs need to be before they can make the switch.

For many of us, it’s been drilled into our heads since day one that backpackers wear boots. That’s just what you do. You need the toughness and the ankle support and the water protection, right?

That’s why it blew my mind a few years back when I learned that thru-hikers cover thousands of trail miles every year in running shoes!

When I get asked this question now, after many years and thousands of my own trail miles (both with and without boots), I feel very confident in saying: Ditch the boots and don’t look back.

Here are five reasons why:


LOOKING FOR A NEW PAIR OF KICKS?: Check out out footwear guides to learn about critical considerations and our favorite recommendations.

1. Weight On Your Feet Is Costly

The more weight you carry, the more energy you expend carrying it. That part is simple. But weight carried on your feet is actually much more significant.

Weight on your feet will zap 4-6 times more energy than weight on your back. So, swapping that 3-pound pair of boots for a 1-pound pair of running shoes will be the energy saving equivalent of removing 8-12 pounds from your pack. Seriously? Seriously. It’s science.

2. Blisters Are The Pits

Rigid, hard-soled boots don’t flex with your feet and they won’t let your tootsies breathe. Your feet will be soft from soaking in sweaty boots all day and that makes them more vulnerable to blisters.

That’s why even a well broken-in pair of boots can cause blisters over a long day on the trail. And if you’ve ever experienced bad blisters, you already know, blisters are the pits.

For more info on avoiding blisters, check out our post on How to Prevent and Treat Blisters.


3. Waterproof Is A Misleading Term

Most boots claim to be waterproof and most hikers think that’s a good thing. But waterproof boots won’t keep your feet dry. It’s as simple as that.

Your feet will be wet with sweat because they can’t breathe.

Waterproof boots only provide short-term protection from rain. When it rains, water will run down your legs and into your boots.

Even the highest quality waterproof boots will develop tiny holes over time that slowly let water in during prolonged rain.

Waterproof treatments are not permanent and will need to be refreshed after a while.

Gaiters and rain pants (women’s here) can help delay swamping your boots, but if it rains for long enough, it’s inevitable that your feet will eventually get wet. And when boots get wet, they get heavy. Very heavy. They also take forever to dry out. So don’t get sucked into the “waterproof” hype.

4. Ankle Support Is A Myth

Okay, maybe myth isn’t the right word. But ankle support isn’t all it’s cracked up to be. Ankle support is primarily a phrase that sells boots.

We all have it baked into our minds that boots provide ankle support, and that’s what’s going to keep us from getting injured – which, by the way, is among the top fears of wilderness travelers. But there isn’t actually much evidence to back that up.

Most research says that if you want to prevent ankle injuries, you should focus on strengthening and stretching your ankles. If you’re a healthy, active person without nagging ankle issues, you don’t really need any extra ankle support while hiking.

Furthermore, boots will tire your legs quicker and make your footwork clumsier. Both of which will put you at much greater risk of other injuries.

True story: I was recently contacted by a new boot company claiming to make boots with better ankle support. They proudly stated, “out of XXX boots sold, we’ve only had 9 customers report ankle injuries!” Moral of the story: even special new ankle support boots can’t prevent injuries.

5. Boots Are Demanding

Boots are expensive, they take a long time to break in, and they need to be maintained to keep their form. That’s a whole lot of hassle for a tool that’s going to tear up your feet and waste your energy.

Wouldn’t a light, cost-effective alternative that you can wear straight out of the box be better? I sure think so.

Don’t get me wrong. I own a fantastic pair of boots (check out our lists of the best men’s and women’s hiking boots to see our top picks) that have lasted for many years. I use them for snowy winter hikes and they’re an excellent tool. I just don’t wear boots on my 3-season backpacking trips anymore, and I don’t think I ever will again.

Shoes snow and ice crack

Make The Switch

When you’re ready to make the switch, choose a lightweight running shoe or trail runner. For more information, take a look at our lists of the Best Trail Running Shoes for Men and Women to see our top picks and learn more about critical considerations to keep in mind when choosing hiking footwear.

Look for a comfortable shoe that you can wear without any break-in period. Look for shoes with good traction and a soft, flexible sole that is thick enough to avoid feeling rocks under your feet.

Get shoes that will breathe easily and dry quickly after getting wet. Steer clear of shoes that have large sections of unsupported mesh, because mesh can wear out quickly on the trail.

It’s also a good idea to bump up half a shoe size, because feet tend to swell over long days of hiking. Running shoe soles will compress over time, but they are usually good for at least 500 trail miles, sometimes much more.

I wore this pair of New Balance running shoes for over 900 miles on the PCT. My last pair of trail runners (Saucony Peregrine) have lasted over 1,000 trail miles.




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